
^{13}C (1981AJ01)(See Energy Level Diagrams for ^{13}C) GENERAL: See also (1976AJ04) and Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977TE01, 1978BO31, 1979HO17). Collective, rotational and deformed models:(1976BR26, 1977ME1E). Cluster model: (1977SA19). Special levels: (1977ME1E, 1977TE01, 1977RI08, 1978BO31, 1978MI04, 1979RO1E, 1980BA54). Electromagnetic transitions: (1977ME1E, 1977YO1D, 1978KI08, 1978KR19, 1978MI04, 1980BA54). Giant resonances: (1977AL18, 1977MA06, 1979DO17, 1979HO17). Applied work: (1975GA1E, 1977AN1F, 1977SH1E, 1978EM1A, 1978KE1E, 1978LE1P, 1979AL1P, 1979EN1D, 1979JA1F, 1979KU20, 1979SM1B). Special reactions: (1976AB04, 1976BE1K, 1976BU16, 1976HI05, 1976LE12, 1976LE1F, 1977AR06, 1977RE08, 1977SH1D, 1977UD1A, 1977YA1B, 1978AB08, 1978BI08, 1978GE1C, 1978HE1C, 1978KO01, 1978LE15, 1979AL22, 1979BO22, 1979HE1D, 1979PO16, 1979SA27, 1979ST1D, 1980MI01). Astrophysical questions: (1975LO1E, 1976BE1C, 1976BO1M, 1976BR1K, 1976DE1F, 1976DE1G, 1976DE1H, 1976EP1A, 1976FI1E, 1976FU1C, 1976GA1F, 1976HI1D, 1976MA1N, 1976NO1C, 1976QU1A, 1976RE1B, 1976SP1B, 1976TO1D, 1976VA1D, 1976VI1B, 1976WA1G, 1977AU1E, 1977AU1F, 1977CA1H, 1977CA1J, 1977CA1K, 1977CH1J, 1977CL1B, 1977CL1C, 1977CO1J, 1977DA1E, 1977DE1N, 1977DI1C, 1977FU1L, 1977HA1L, 1977JO1D, 1977LA1F, 1977LA1G, 1977LI1H, 1977PA1D, 1977PR1E, 1977SC1H, 1977SH09, 1977ST1H, 1977TI1A, 1977TR1D, 1977WA1N, 1977WA1P, 1977WI1D, 1978BU1B, 1978DE1R, 1978DO1B, 1978IB1A, 1978LU1C, 1978SN1A, 1978ST1C, 1978ST1D, 1978TR1C, 1978VA1B, 1978WA1E, 1979BE1V, 1979BJ1A, 1979GE1D, 1979GU1D, 1979LA1H, 1979MC1B, 1979ME1D, 1979OL1B, 1979PE1E, 1979RA1C, 1979SA1M, 1979SW1B, 1979TU1A, 1979WI1H, 1980HE1D, 1980LA1G, 1980MC1G, 1980PE1F). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1977BA1P, 1977DO06, 1977MU1A, 1978DE15, 1978LE04, 1979BE1N, 1979DE01, 1980MU1B). Pion capture and reactions (See also reactions 35 and 53.): (1976AS1B, 1976AU1E, 1974BO1U, 1976DI11, 1976EN02, 1976GA06, 1976GA21, 1976JA1D, 1976LI04, 1976NI05, 1976OS06, 1977AU01, 1977DI1B, 1977FU10, 1977GI06, 1977HO1B, 1977LO19, 1977WA02, 1978DY01, 1978KI08, 1978KI13, 1978MI02, 1978RO1H, 1978WA02, 1979AL1J, 1979ALZW, 1979AN1J, 1979ANZM, 1979BA2D, 1979BA2E, 1979BE1N, 1979BO1U, 1979CO1H, 1979CO1C, 1979DE34, 1979GI1D, 1979GR1K, 1979GY1A, 1979GY1B, 1979HI1A, 1979HO1F, 1979IN1A, 1979JO1C, 1979JO08, 1979LA22, 1979LEZR, 1979LI1H, 1979MAZW, 1979MO1N, 1979MO1P, 1979MO1Q, 1979PI1C, 1979RE1A, 1979SA21, 1979ST1J, 1979TR1B, 1979TRZR, 1980BO03, 1980CH08, 1980ER01, 1980GA12, 1980JO06, 1980LA1C, 1980LE02, 1980MA1F, 1980NA1B, 1980PE1C, 1980SA04, 1980TH01). Other topics: (1976BI1A, 1976BR26, 1976FE1B, 1976VA1C, 1978DA1A, 1978LI1D, 1978MC04, 1978PO1A, 1978SH1B, 1978SO1A, 1979BE1H, 1979HE1F). Ground state of ^{13}C: (1976BR26, 1976DU04, 1976FU06, 1976JO1B, 1977AN21, 1977NO07, 1977YO1D, 1978AN07, 1978HE1D, 1978MI04, 1978TA09, 1978ZA1D, 1979SA27).
Radius of ^{13}C:The rms nuclear charge radius is 2.51 ± 0.04 fm (1979BE1N; prelim.: see also reaction 52). The neutron rms radius is 2.35 ± 0.03 fm (1979JO08). See also (1979SA27; theor.). ^{13}C*(3.85) [J^{π} = 5/2^{+}]: g is negative (1976DY05).
The yield curves for d_{0}(E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV), t_{0}(E(^{7}Li) = 5 to 14 MeV) and α_{0}(E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV) show broad, uncorrelated structures. Energyaveraged differential cross sections are also reported for a number of ^{12}B, ^{11}B and ^{10}B states (1971WY01). Total cross section measurements have been measured for E(^{7}Li) = 3.8 to 6.0 MeV for p_{0} → p_{2}, p_{3+4}, p_{5}; d_{0} → d_{3}, d_{4+5}, d_{6}; t_{0} → t_{2}; and α_{0}: total cross sections generally increase smoothly with energy without showing any structure (1967KI03). The ^{11}C yield has been measured for E(^{6}Li) = 1.2 to 3.6 MeV by (1961NO05). See also ^{9}Be and ^{10}B in (1979AJ01) and ^{11}B and ^{12}B in (1980AJ01).
See (1978KA1H) and (1970AJ04).
See (1976AJ04).
Resonances for n_{0} and n_{1}, for γrays from ^{12}C*(4.4, 12.7, 15.1) and resonances in the total neutron cross section are given in Table 13.8 (in PDF or PS). The yield of neutrons to ^{12}C*(7.65, 9.64) has been measured in the range E_{α} = 2.9  6.4 MeV (1972OB01). The n_{0} and n_{1} excitation functions exhibit weak resonance anomalies at E_{α} = 6.44 MeV corresponding to the J^{π} = 3/2^{}, T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11 MeV: see Tables 13.7 (in PDF or PS) and 13.8 (in PDF or PS) (1978HI06). Based on all available information the charge asymmetry of the reduced transition strengths, δ ≡ B(^{13}C)/B(^{13}N)  1, δ(M1) = 0.15 ± 0.07 and δ(E2) = 1.0 ± 0.6 (1978HI06). Polarization measurements have been reported for E_{α} to 22.9 MeV (see (1976AJ04)) and also at E_{α} = 2.4 and 2.8 MeV (1976NI01; n_{0}, n_{1}) and 100 MeV (1978LE10). Reaction (b) has been studied at a number of energies in the range E_{α} = 17 to 44 MeV (1970KR00). See also (1975GE19, 1976GE1A, 1977LI19).
Excitation curves have been measured for E_{α} = 15 to 25 MeV (1975VA19; d_{0}, d_{1}) and 26.5 to 27.5 MeV (1975PU01; d_{0} → d_{3}, d_{4+5}, d_{6}): no sharp structures are observed. See also ^{11}B in (1980AJ01). At E_{α} = 26.0 to 27.5 MeV yield curves have been obtained for the t_{0}, t_{1} and t_{3} groups: no structure is observed (1974KE06). See also (1976LE1K) and (1968AJ02) for reaction (a).
A number of exciation functions have been measured for elastically scattered αparticles (reaction (a)) for E_{α} = 1.4 to 20 MeV: these show considerable resonance structure with the variations being most prominent below 10 MeV but persisting up to 20 MeV. The parameters resulting from a bestfit of the exciation functions are displayed in Table 13.9 (in PDF or PS): see the footnotes to that table for a summary of the most important caveats (1973GO15). A weak resonance is observed in the α_{0} yield at E_{α} = 6.44 MeV corresponding to the excitation of the first T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11: see Table 13.7 (in PDF or PS) for the parameters of that state (1978HI06). See also (1974LO1B, 1979AJ01).
At E(^{6}Li) = 23.8 MeV angular distributions are reported to ^{13}C*(0, 3.1, 3.6, 6.9, 7.5, 9.9, 10.8, 12.0, 13.3). There is some indication of the population of ^{13}C*(9.5, 13.9, 14.5, 15.2, 16.7, 18.5) (1971GO24).
At E(^{7}Li) = 5.6 to 6.2 MeV angular distributions are reported for t_{0}, t_{1}, t_{2+3}, t_{4} (1969SN02). See also (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{12}C) = 12 and 15 MeV (1970BA49, 1971BA68) and E(^{9}Be) = 20 MeV (1979JA1G, 1979BO1K) for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85) and in addition to ^{13}C*(3.68) in the latter experiment. The neutron spectroscopic factors are 1.15, 0.95, 0.20, 1.02 for the first four states of ^{13}C (1979JA1G). See also (1976AJ04). At E(^{9}Be) = 50 MeV ^{13}C*(6.86, 7.5, 8.2, 9.5, 10.8) are also populated (1977ST20). For yield measurements [total cross sections, and transitions involving ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.5)], see (1977SW05, 1978CH02, 1978MA44, 1979BO06). See also (1977UH1A).
See (1970AJ04).
See (1976EP1A; astrophys.).
The p_{0} and p_{1} yields from reaction (a), the d_{0} yield from reaction (b) and the α_{0} yield from reaction (c) have been determined for E_{t} = 0.8 to 2.0 MeV. There is no evidence of resonance behavior (1963HO19). See also (1977ST1N; p_{0}, p_{1}, p_{5}, p_{6}) and (1977CI1A; α_{0} → α_{3}), both in the interval E_{t} = 0.5 to 1.25 MeV.
Proton groups have been observed to the first four states of ^{13}C: see (1976AJ04). Angular distributions of p_{0} have been measured at many energies up to E_{α} = 30.4 MeV: see (1970AJ04) and ^{14}N. For τ_{1/2} measurements see Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04). For the decay of ^{13}C*(3.85) see Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS) (1980WA24). See also (1976EP1A; astrophys.).
Comparisons of the relative intensities of the ^{3}He groups in this reaction and of the triton groups in the mirror reaction (see reaction 9 in ^{13}N) at E(^{6}Li) = 18 MeV suggest that the following states are analogs: 6.86  6.36, 7.49  7.16, 9.50  9.00, 9.90  9.48, (10.82 + 10.75)  (10.36 + 10.36) [the first (set of) E_{x} is in ^{13}C, the second in ^{13}N]. An angular distribution is also reported for ^{13}C*(9.50) and the widths for ^{13}C*(7.55, 7.69, 9.50) are determined to be < 30, 60 ± 30 and < 30 keV, respectively (1974HO06).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{7}Li) = 5.20 MeV for the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3} and α_{4} groups (1966MC05).
At E(^{10}B) = 100 MeV angular distributions are reported for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.8) (1975NA15, 1976NA09). See also (1979MO14).
The 90° γ_{0} excitation curve measured for E_{d} = 1.0 to 4.2 MeV shows a resonance at E_{d} = 2.0 ± 0.1 MeV (^{13}C*(20.4)) with Γ_{lab} ≈ 0.6 MeV. The angular distributions of γ_{0} are isotropic to within 10% on and off resonance, consistent with E1 radiation (1973WE12).
The yield of neutrons and γrays has been measured for E_{d} = 0.2 to 11 MeV: observed resonances are displayed in Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS). For a listing of polarization measurements see Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04) and (1975SI22; E_{d} = 0.9 and 1.2 MeV; n_{0}, n_{1}). See also (1974LO1B, 1977SE09) and ^{12}C in (1980AJ01).
Some measurements show that the thintarget yield rises smoothly from E_{d} = 0.3 to 3.1 MeV with no evidence of resonances: see (1970AJ04). However, (1964BR1A) and (1968CH05) report a resonance in the yields of p_{0}, p_{1} and p_{2}, and of γ_{1} and γ_{2}: see Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS). For polarization measurements see (1976AJ04) and (1976TA07; 1.0 to 4.0 MeV; p_{0}). See also (1974FI1D, 1976HA1J), (1977SA25; theor.) and ^{12}B in (1980AJ01).
A polarization measurement has been reported at E_{d} = 12.6 MeV (1971ZA04). See also ^{11}B in (1980AJ01).
See (1976AJ04) and ^{10}B and ^{10}Be in (1979AJ01).
At low energies the excitation functions for α_{0} and α_{1} increase monotonically: see (1970AJ04). Then at E_{d} = 1.85 MeV a pronounced resonance is observed in the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2} and α_{3} yields (1969FR03). Some gross structure is also observed in these yields for E_{d} = 1.0 to 3.2 MeV (1964BR1A, 1969FR03). See also (1978GR07) and ^{9}Be in (1979AJ01).
See ^{14}C.
Levels derived from proton groups are displayed in Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS). The decay parameters for the first T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11 MeV are displayed in Table 13.7 (in PDF or PS) (1973AD02, 1975MA21, 1977MA16). See also reactions 11 and 13 in ^{13}N. The reduced aymmetries B(^{13}C)/B(^{13}N)  1 are 0.07 ± 0.13, 0.82^{+1.2}_{0.6}, ≤ 0.83 ± 0.29 and 0.04 ± 0.14 for the γ_{0}(M1), γ_{0}(E2), γ_{1}(E1) and γ_{2}(M1) transitions. Changes in the wave functions due to binding energy differences in ^{13}C and ^{13}N do not account for the observed asymmetry of the E1 decays of the first excited states in ^{13}C and ^{13}N (1977MA16): see Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions of proton groups have been measured at many energies to E(^{3}He) = 12 MeV: see (1970AJ04, 1976AJ04). See also (1979HAYZ) and (1976EP1A; astrophys.).
Angular distributions of the d_{0} group have been measured at E_{α} = 15.1 to 25.2 MeV (1975VA19) and 23 and 25 MeV (1967AL16). See also (1976LE1K).
Angular distributions are reported at E(^{6}Li) = 4.72 MeV for α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}, α_{4}, α_{5+6+7} (1966MC05).
Angular distributions involving the ground state transitions have been measured at E(^{14}N) = 41, 77 and 113 MeV (1971LI11). See also (1978DZ1A; theor.).
See (1976AJ04).
See also previous values listed in (1976AJ04) and (1974SP04, 1979GR1J [preliminary value 4946.329 ± 0.024 keV]). The thermal capture cross section is 3.4 ± 0.3 mb (1973MU14). The capture is 32 ± 1% via ^{13}C*(3.68) and 68 ± 1% to ^{13}C_{g.s.} (1968SP01). ^{13}C*(3.68) decays with E_{γ} = 3684.28 ± 0.14 keV (1968SP01), 3683.94 ± 0.17 keV (1967PR10): see Table 13.13 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04) for other data. See also (1978AR1N), (1980DO1C; astrophys.) and (1977MA06; theor.).
The coherent scattering length (thermal, bound) a_{coh} = 6.6535 ± 0.0014 fm; σ_{scatt} = 4.7456 ± 0.0020 b (1979KO26). See (1978FU1G) for an Rmatrix analysis of all the data below the inelastic channel and for best values of the elastic svattering cross sections. Total cross section measurements in the range 1 keV to 273 GeV/c are listed in Table 13.14 (in PDF or PS) of (1976AJ04) and displayed in (1976GAYV). Recent σ_{t} measurements are reported by (1979SM08; 0.1 to 4.5 MeV), (1979AU07; 1.2 to 13.9 MeV) and (1980CI03; 4.5 to 8 MeV). Cross sections for populating ^{12}C*(4.4) [by observing n_{1} or 4.4 MeV γrays] have recently been reported by (1975RO30; 4.8 → 20 MeV), (1977DI11; 5 → 19 MeV), (1978HA1P; 8.0 → 14.5 MeV; also n_{0}), (1978NO04; 8.1 → 9.0 MeV) and (1976GL11; 9 → 15 MeV; also n_{0}). For the earlier measurements see (1959AJ76, 1970AJ04, 1976AJ04, 1976GAYV). Observed resonances are displayed in Tables 13.12 (in PDF or PS) and 13.13 (in PDF or PS). The parameters of the resonances with E_{n} > 6.3 MeV are poorly known. Polarization measurements have recently been reported at 4.60, 4.82, 5.17 MeV (1979WE1E, 1979WEZP; n_{0}), 14.2 MeV (1976BR1J, 1976CA13; n_{0}, n_{1}) and 15.85 MeV (1976LE1M, 1976TH1B; n_{0}, n_{1}). For the earlier work see Table 13.15 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04). For reaction (c) see (1976CO1N) and ^{12}C in (1980AJ01). See also (1975BL07, 1976HA1N, 1976TO1C, 1978ME12, 1978SU1E, 1979BE50, 1979FI1B, 1979LAZP, 1979LAZQ, 1979URZZ, 1980LA1D), (1975HO1F, 1976KI1F, 1976LI1H, 1976WA1B, 1976WA1C, 1977LA1H), (1977SM1D; applied) and (1976TH10, 1977PU02, 1978AD1A, 1978CA03, 1978MI1E, 1978MI04, 1979RO1E, 1980SH01; theor.).
See (1975AC1A) and (1976AJ04, 1976GAYV).
The cross section exhibits a weak resonance corresponding to E_{x} ≈ 20.5 MeV and a stronger structure at E_{x} ≈ 21.5 MeV: see (1976AJ04). Polarization measurements are reported at E_{nbar} = 50 MeV (1977FI1B). See also ^{12}B in (1980AJ01) and (1974BO1E, 1975NI1C, 1976GAYV, 1976SL2A, 1979ROZV).
For reaction (a) see (1976AJ04). For reaction (b) see (1978QA01). For both see (1976GAYV, 1976SL2A).
The cross section for the α_{0} group shows a broad structure at E_{n} ≈ 8 MeV (1963DA12). See also (1978SU1D) and (1976AJ04, 1976GAYV, 1976SL2A).
At E_{p} = 185 MeV, angular distributions have been observed for the π^{+} groups to the ground state of ^{13}C and to E_{x} = 3.08 ± 0.09, 3.80 ± 0.12, 6.87 ± 0.18, 7.57 ± 0.16 and 9.51 ± 0.22 MeV. The shapes of the distributions and the differential cross sections to the various states are quite different: several kinds of reaction processes appear to be involved (1973DA24). Polarization measurements are reported at E_{pbar} = 200 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09 + 3.68 + 3.85) (1978AU07)^{†}. See also (1979PIZZ, 1979SOZY, 1979TSZZ), (1975HU1D, 1976AJ04), (1976MI14, 1976NO1D, 1977KU1G, 1977LE1H, 1978WE1G, 1979CE1A; theor.) and the "Pion capture and reactions" section here. ^{†} For cross section measurements near threshold see (1979MA38, 1979MA39).
Measurements of the proton groups are summarized in Table 13.14 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been studied at many energies to E_{d} = 80.2 MeV: see Table 13.19 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04) for a listing of earlier work and (1979OS11; E_{d} = 1.58 → 2.20 MeV; p_{1}). Observed γrays are listed in Table 13.16 (in PDF or PS) of (1970AJ04) and in Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS) here: ground state decays have been observed for ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68, 3.85). ^{13}C*(3.68) decays via ^{13}C*(3.09) with a 0.75 ± 0.04% branch (1980WA24). ^{13}C*(3.85) also decays via ^{13}C*(3.68) with a 36.0 ± 0.7% branch (1975TR07), 36.3 ± 0.6% (1980WA24) with E_{γ} = 169.300 ± 0.004 keV (1980WA24) and via ^{13}C*(3.09) with a 1.20 ± 0.04% branch (1980WA24). Mixing ratios are given in (1970AJ04). Lifetimes of the first three excited states are displayed in Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS): see (1976AJ04) and (1977HE1D, 1977HE12). The nuclear g factor of ^{13}C*(3.85) is 0.59 ± 0.05 (1974BE48). Reaction (b) has been studied in a kinematically complete experiment at E_{d} = 5.00 to 9.85 MeV: there is some evidence for pn final state interaction (1973SA03). See also (1966YO1A, 1976DY05, 1979SI07), (1976EP1A; astrophys.), (1977FI1A, 1978BO1L; applied), (1976HE17, 1976OS07, 1976SE1F, 1976SH13, 1976TA1D, 1977AN1G, 1977TA08, 1978HA1Q, 1979NE1B, 1979ZE1B; theor.) and ^{14}N.
At E_{t} = 12 MeV angular distributions have been studied for the d_{0} → d_{3} groups (1966GL01).
The angular distributions for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85) have been studied at E(^{3}He) = 40 MeV (1971ST21). The proton decay of various ^{14}N states to ^{13}C_{g.s.} has been studied by (1974NO74): see ^{14}N.
Angular distributions of the ^{3}He particles have been measured at E_{α} = 56 MeV (1969GA11; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68 + 3.85)), 104 MeV (1972HA08; to ^{13}C(0)) and 139 MeV (1973SM03; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85)). A detailed comparison has been made between the angular distributions of the ground state ^{3}He particles and of the tritons from the mirror reaction ^{12}C(α, t)^{13}N (1969GA11, 1972HA08).
Angular distributions at E(^{7}Li) = 48 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85) have been analyzed and yield spectroscopic factors of 0.80, 0.44, 0.17 and 0.74 for the first four states of ^{13}C (1979ZE01). See (1973SC26) for earlier work at E(^{7}Li) = 36 MeV.
See (1974AN36) and (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions at E(^{12}C) = 93.8 MeV have been measured for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85) (1979FU04). See also (1979HEZX) and (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions have been reported at E(^{14}N) = 78, 100 and 154.8 MeV involving ^{13}C*(0, 3.85) [and at 100 MeV ^{13}C*(3.09, 7.3 ± 0.3)]: see (1976AJ04) and (1976NA09). More recently angular distributions have been studied at E(^{14}N) = 28, 32, 34 and 36 MeV (1976BA16). The ratio of the differential cross section to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and that to ^{13}N_{g.s.} (observed via ^{12}C(^{14}N, ^{13}C)^{13}N), as a function of θ is approximately 1 as expected if mirror symmetry holds (1969VO01, 1970VO02, 1975VO05). See also (1978MA1F) and (1977WE1H, 1978DZ1A, 1978NA15, 1978WE1F, 1979DO13; theor.).
Angular distributions are reported at E(^{16}O) = 128 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85) (1979PR07).
Angular distributions have been studied at E(^{17}O) = 30.5 and 33.8 MeV (to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09)) and at E(^{18}O) = 32.3 and 35 MeV (to ^{13}C_{g.s.}) (1978CH16).
See (1970AJ04).
See ^{13}B and Table 13.2 (in PDF or PS).
For τ_{m} studied by resonance scattering see Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS).
The main features of the cross section are a sharp peak corresponding to the T = 3/2 state ^{13}C*(15.11) [Γ_{γ0} = 19.7 ± 2.0 eV], the broad pigmy resonance at E_{x} = 13 MeV [on which peaks are superimposed at E_{x} = 11.0, 13.8, 16.5 and 17.8 MeV] and the giant resonance at E_{x} = 24 MeV (σ_{max} = 9.5 mb) [surrounded by shoulder resonances at E_{x} = 20.8 and ≈ 30 MeV, both of which appear to decay substantially to highly excited states of ^{12}C]. There is also some evidence for a weak resonance at ≈ 37 MeV superimposed on the high energy tail of the GDR (1979JU01: monoenergetic photons). A recent study of the angular distributions of n_{0} suggests states at E_{x} = 7.70 (3/2^{+}), 7.95 (3/2^{+}), 8.95 ((1/2^{})), 10.0 ((3/2^{})), 11.0 ((1/2^{+})) and 12.05 MeV ((3/2^{+})) (1979WO06). Γ_{n} and Γ_{γ0} deduced from (γ, n_{0}) measurements are displayed in Tables 13.12 (in PDF or PS) and 13.15 (in PDF or PS) (1980HO11). For other differential cross section measurements derived from bremsstrahlung measurements see (1977WO04; n_{0}, 6.0 to 37 MeV; n_{1}, 10.5 to 35.5 MeV). For reports of other structures see (1976AJ04) and (1976KO22). See also (1977AL18; theor.). For reaction (b) see (1979JU01) and (1976AJ04). See also (1976BE1H, 1976CR1C), (1977DA1B, 1979BE1X) and (1977HO32, 1977MA06, 1979HO17, 1979JOZP; theor.).
(1964DE12) report structures at E_{γ} = 18.5, 20.0, 23.5, 26.0 and 29.0 MeV. The main part of the cross section is in the 23.5 MeV peak which has Γ ≈ 3 MeV. A broad maximum near 25.5 MeV has been reported by (1956CO72, 1957CO57). The cross section to ^{12}B*(0.95) shows a broad maximum at E_{γ} = 25 MeV (1975PA09). See also (1977HO32, 1977MA06, 1979HO17; theor.).
See (1970AJ04).
The elastic scattering has been studied for E_{e} = 120 to 750 MeV (1970HE24). A number of inelastic groups are seen: see Tables 13.15 (in PDF or PS) and 13.16 (in PDF or PS) (1970WI04, 1971BE51, 1980SO1B). A distinct splitting of the giant resonance into two large peaks near E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV, with widths of ≈ 3 and ≈ 4 MeV, respectively, is observed. It is suggested that these are groupings of narrower peaks [see Table 13.16 (in PDF or PS)]. The E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV resonances are probably T = 1/2 and T = 3/2, although the 4 MeV splitting is somewhat smaller than expected (1971BE51). See also reactions 49 and 50. For radius measurements see (1976AJ04) and the "GENERAL" section here. See also (1977AL1H, 1977AL1J, 1979KI1J, 1979SE06, 1980ER01; theor.). At E_{e} = 43 MeV the energy and angular distributions of the protons emitted in reaction (b) suggest the involvement of ^{13}C*(21.8?, 24.2, 25.5, 27.5, 31.5) (1971SH09).
The elastic scattering of π^{+} has been studied at E_{π+} = 48.6 MeV by (1978DY01). At E_{π} = 162 MeV the inelastic transition to ^{13}C*(9.5) is very strongly enhanced in π^{} scattering. The enhancement factor σ(π^{})/σ(π^{+}) ≈ 9 is consistent with a pure neutron transition and a 9/2^{+} assignment. Also enhanced in π^{} scattering (but less strongly) are ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68 + 3.85), (7.49)). ^{13}C*(7.55) and a group of states close to 16 MeV are enhanced in π^{+} scattering. The centroid of a group of states near 22 MeV is found in (π^{}, π^{}') at a higher excitation energy than in (π^{+}, π^{+}') (1979DE34). At E_{π} = 180 MeV angular distributions are reported for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.55, 9.5, 11.7, 15.0, 17.5): the transitions to ^{13}C*(9.5) is enhanced by a factor of 4.0^{+2.0}_{0.7} (1979SC25) in π^{} scattering. Preliminary work is also reported for the inelastic scattering to ^{13}C*(16.1, 21.4) [large M4 strength] (1980TR1B). See also the "GENERAL" section here.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{n} = 1.6 to 6.6 MeV for the n_{0} group, and for the n_{1}, n_{2} and n_{3} groups at several energies in that range (1978LA1H, 1979KOZU; abstracts). See also (1977NO07; theor.) and ^{14}C.
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{p} = 1.37 to 30.4 MeV [see (1976AJ04)] and at E_{p} = 6 MeV (1975DE26, 1977SA1B; p_{0}, p_{1}, p_{3}), E_{pbar} = 10.0 to 17.5 MeV (1978WE13; p_{0}), E_{p} = 35.2 MeV (1980FA07; p_{0}), 135 MeV (1980RI1A; to ^{13}C*(9.50)), 800 MeV (1978BL02; to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 6.86, 7.55, 11.92 ± 0.06)) and 1 GeV (1979AL26; p_{0}). The work of (1978BL02) suggests J^{π} = (5/2, 7/2)^{+} for ^{13}C*(11.92). Inelastic scattering to ^{13}C*(21.3, 21.8), the former with Γ ≈ 0.3 MeV [may be due to unresolved states] is observed at E_{p} = 135 MeV (1980DE1L; prelim.). Microscopic analyses of the angular distribution to ^{13}C*(9.50) [J^{π} = 9/2^{+}] show that the transition is an essentially pure 1p_{3/2} to 1d_{5/2} neutron transition with a total angular momentum transfer of 4, consistent with the results of the pion scattering (see reaction 53) (1980RI1A). Reaction (b) has been studied at E_{p} = 7.9 to 12 MeV (1971OT02: one or more of the ^{13}C states at 7.5 MeV seem to be involved) and at E_{p} = 46 MeV (1974MI05). See also ^{14}N, (1977BA2G, 1978AL36) and (1977AM1C; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{d} = 0.71 to 15 MeV [see (1976AJ04)] and at E_{dbar} = 13 MeV (1978DA17; d_{0} → d_{3}) and E_{d} = 13.6 MeV (1975ZA08; d_{0}). See also ^{15}N and (1979DO03; theor.).
For reaction (a) see (1980DE1M). Angular distributions of elastically scattered ^{3}He have been studied at E(^{3}He) = 12 to 40 MeV [see (1976AJ04)], at 18, 20 and 24 MeV (1976MA26), at 20 MeV (1977PE23) and at 41 MeV (1980TR02). Angular distributions at E(^{3}He) = 40 MeV have also been reported to ^{13}C states at E_{x} = 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.55 ± 0.03, 8.86 ± 0.03 and 11.84 ± 0.03 MeV. ^{3}He groups to ^{13}C*(9.50 ± 0.03) and (15.11) are also reported: the latter is weak (1969BA06). At E(^{3}He) = 43.6 MeV angular distributions to ^{13}C*(9.498) and to ^{13}N*(8.918) [J^{π} = 1/2^{}] (in the (^{3}He, t) reaction) are identical but the cross section in the latter reaction is 1.25 ± 0.15, rather than the factor of 2 expected from isospin symmetry (1980PE1E; prelim.). See also (1980DE1M) and (1977FU1G, 1977FU1H; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured at E_{α} = 15 to 40.5 MeV. In the range E_{α} = 24 to 40.5 MeV angular distributions have been reported to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68 + 3.85, 6.86, 7.5). At E_{α} = 22 MeV, E_{x} = 7686 keV, Γ_{cm} = 70 ± 5 keV (1980FU04; also line shapes). (1976WO11) report S_{α} = 0.67 for ^{12}C_{g.s.}. The excitation of ^{4}He*(20.1) [J^{π} = 0^{+}] has been studied at E_{α} = 65 MeV (1976JA17). See also (1976PA25, 1977DM1A, 1977SA19, 1978ZE03; theor.).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered Li ions have been studied at E(Li) = 4.5 to 34 MeV [see (1976AJ04)], at E(Libar) = 9 MeV (1978DR07) and at E(^{6}Li) = 40 MeV (1979ZE01). See also (1971SC21) and (1976ST22, 1979SU1F; theor.).
The elastic scattering has been studied at E(^{13}C) = 28.1 and 36.2 MeV (1979JA04, 1979UN01).
Angular distributions for reaction (a) have been studied at E(^{12}C) = 10 to 87 MeV [see (1976AJ04)], 15 MeV (1980VO05; elastic, and to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.85)), 20 to 35.5 MeV (1978CH29; elastic, and to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68 + 3.85) from 30 MeV), 80 MeV (1979TA1E; elastic), and for the elastic scattering at E(^{13}C) = 12 MeV (1976WE28, 1977GU07) and 36 MeV (1976WE21). The spectroscopic factor for ^{13}C_{g.s.} = 0.81 ± 0.04 (1977GU07). For fusion studies see (1976ST12, 1979KO20). See also ^{12}C in (1980AJ01), (1978LE1N), (1977WI1C), (1978RO1D; astrophys.) and (1977TR1A, 1978AV1A, 1978CH30, 1978PA1B, 1978TA1B, 1979IM02, 1979GR20, 1979ZE1B; theor.). For reaction (b) elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(^{13}C) = 15 to 24 MeV (1973HE12), while for reaction (c) the elastic distribution has been measured at E(^{13}C) = 15 MeV (1972BO68). For a fusion study see (1980CH01). See also (1978TE02, 1980SC1D; theor.).
The elastic angular distribution has been studied at E(^{14}N) = 19.3 MeV (1971VO01). See also (1976AJ04) and (1980WI09) for fusion measurements.
Elastic angular distributions have been measured for reaction (a) at E(^{16}O) = 10 to 30 MeV [see (1976AJ04)] and 14 MeV (1976DU04), and at E(^{13}C) = 36 MeV (1976WE21) and 105 MeV (1979BR03). For fusion measurements see (1979CH07). Elastic scattering distributions in reaction (b) are reported at E(^{17}O) = 29.8 and 32.3 MeV (1977CH22, 1978CH03; see also ^{17}O in (1982AJ01)). For fusion studies see (1980WI09). Elastic scattering in reaction (c) has been studied at E(^{18}O) = 15, 20 and 24 MeV (1971KN05) and 31 MeV (1978CH03). For a fusion study see (1978CO07). See also (1979GAZV) and (1978SC1E, 1979PAZY; theor.).
See (1979DU10).
Backward elastic angular distributions are reported at E(^{28}Si) = 77.6 to 94.6 MeV (1979OS01). See also (1975RA33, 1979DE1N).
See (1975RA33).
See (1978HO1C) and (1977FU1K, 1977UD1A, 1978BA26, 1978PE1E, 1979SA27; theor.).
See ^{13}N.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{p} = 12 to 18.5 MeV [see (1976AJ04)] and at 27 MeV (1975CE04; d_{0} → d_{3}). The spectroscopic factors for the first four states of ^{13}C are 1.4, 0.02, 1.8 and 0.13, repspectively (1975CE04).
Angular distributions for t_{0} → t_{3} have been studied at E_{d} = 12 MeV (1966GL01) and E_{dbar} = 14 MeV (1976WE01). The spectroscopic factors for ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85) are 1.00, 0.06, 1.0 and 0.08, respectively (1976WE01). See also ^{16}N in (1982AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{3}He) = 3 to 4.5 MeV (α_{0}, α_{1}) and 3 to 6.6 MeV (α_{2}, α_{3}) (1972KE08), at 6, 8 and 10 MeV (1971CO14; α_{0}) and 44.8 MeV (1966BA13; α_{0}, α_{2} and α to ^{13}C*(15.11)). See also ^{17}O in (1982AJ01).
See (1976AJ04).
See (1976AJ04).
See (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{16}O) = 20, 25 and 30 MeV (1975SC35, 1975SC42): they are well described by DWBA (fixed range approximation). See also (1977GO1D, 1977WE1H; theor.).
See (1976AJ04).
For E_{bs} = 15.5 to 29.5 MeV a large fraction of the neutron yield appears to be associated with sequential decay to ^{12}C via ^{13}C*(7.75, 8.86, 11.80) (1972GE11, 1970SH06). Angular distributions measured in the giant resonance region of ^{14}N are consistent with the proton decay of (p_{1/2})^{1}(2s1d) giant dipole states to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and of (p_{3/2})^{1}(2s1d) states to ^{13}C*(3.68) (1974BA37). The population of ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.85) has also been reported (1970TH01; E_{bs} = 29 MeV). See also ^{14}N.
Angular distributions of d_{0} have been determined at E_{n} = 14.1 to 14.7 MeV: see (1970AJ04). Differential cross sections for formation of ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68) have been measured for E_{n} = 10.1 to 11.0 MeV (1970DI1A). See also ^{15}N and (1976KI1D, 1978NE1B).
For reaction (a) see (1969BA1F). At E_{p} = 46 MeV, the summed proton spectrum shows transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.9) (1970WE09). See also (1976AJ04) and (1977KO1P, 1979MA20; theor.).
At E_{d} = 52 MeV, angular distributions have been measured for the ^{3}He particles to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9 ± 0.15) and analyzed by DWBA: J^{π} = 5/2^{}, 1/2^{}, 3/2^{} and 3/2^{}, respectively, are assigned to ^{13}C*(7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9) (1968HI01). As expected, angular distributions of ^{3}He and of tritons (from ^{14}N(d, t)^{13}N) to analog states are closely the same: this has been shown for the ground state ^{3}He and triton groups (1966DE1C, 1968GA13: E_{d} = 28.5 MeV; (1974LU06: E_{d} = 15 MeV) and for the groups to ^{13}C*(8.9 + 9.5) and ^{13}N*(9.2) (1968HI01; E_{d} = 52 MeV). See also ^{16}O in (1982AJ01).
Observed particle groups at E_{t} = 2.6 MeV are displayed in Table 13.22 (in PDF or PS) of (1976AJ04). See also ^{16}O in (1977AJ02).
See ^{14}N.
An angular distribution has been obtained at E(^{6}Li) = 32 MeV for the transition to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) [for the mirror reaction see reaction 40 in ^{13}N]: the relative cross sections show a deviation from isospin symmetry which is attributed to Coulomb effects. ^{13}C*(3.09) was also populated (1971GR44).
See (1976AJ04).
See (1978BA1M) and ^{16}N in (1982AJ01).
At E_{p} = 43.7 MeV ^{3}He groups have been observed to eleven states of ^{13}C: see Table 13.17 (in PDF or PS) (1966CE02, 1968FL03). For a summary of the analysis see (1976AJ04). A study of both angular distributions and analyzing powers in this reaction and in the mirror (p, t) reaction shows that DWBA generally fails to predict the analyzing powers (1974MA12; E_{pbar} = 43.8 MeV). Angular distributions have also been measured for the ^{3}He groups to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.55) at several energies in the range E_{p} = 24.0 to 43.5 MeV (1974PI05, 1975MI01). See also ^{16}O in (1982AJ01).
For α_{0} angular distributions see (1970AJ04). ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68, 8.80) are also populated: see (1976AJ04).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV, the angular distribution of the ^{6}Li particles to ^{13}C_{g.s.} has been measured (1968MI05).
See (1976AJ04).
Angular distributions have been measured for E_{n} to 18.8 MeV for α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}: see (1970AJ04, 1976AJ04). See also (1976NO1F, 1979SUZW).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV the angular distribution of the reaction involving ^{13}C(0) and ^{7}Be*(0 + 0.43) has been measured (1972RU03).
This reaction has been studied at E(^{14}N) = 76 and 79 MeV (1976MO03, 1977MO1A) and 155 MeV (1975NA15, 1976NA09). See also (1979MO14).
At E(^{17}O) = 35 MeV angular distributions have been measured involving ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{20}Ne*(0, 1.63) (1977KA26).
See (1976AJ04).
See (1976AJ04).
