
^{13}C (1976AJ04)(See Energy Level Diagrams for ^{13}C) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1970CO1H, 1970HS02, 1970TA1J, 1971AR1R, 1971GR02, 1971NO02, 1972DE1H, 1972EL1C, 1972GU05, 1972LE1L, 1973DE13, 1973HA49, 1973KU03, 1973MA1X, 1973MA1K, 1973MU18, 1973SA30, 1974PH1D, 1975ME24, 1975MI12). Collective and deformed models: (1971AR1R). Cluster model: (1969BA1J, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03). Special levels: (1970FR1C, 1970PE18, 1971AR03, 1971AR1R, 1971GR02, 1971JA13, 1971NO02, 1971SE1C, 1972BE1E, 1972DE1H, 1973MU18, 1973SA30, 1974HA1G, 1974PH1D, 1974TA1E, 1975KU21, 1975ME24, 1975MI12). Giant resonance: (1970AL1E, 1971JA14, 1972GO27, 1972HA16, 1972LE06, 1973HA1Q, 1973MA1X, 1974HA1C, 1974MU13). Electromagnetic transitions: (1971DI1G, 1971GR02, 1971JA13, 1972GU05, 1972NA05, 1973HA49, 1973HA1Q, 1973SA25, 1973SA30, 1974AD1B, 1974CH46, 1974HA1C, 1974MU13, 1974RO1R, 1974RO1T, 1975FO1L, 1975KU21, 1975ME24). Special reactions: (1969GA18, 1971AR02, 1973KO1D, 1973KU03, 1974KO25, 1975HU14, 1975KU01). Astrophsyical questions: (1972CL1A, 1972UL1A, 1973AR1E, 1973AU1B, 1973AU1D, 1973AU1C, 1973BO1R, 1973CO1B, 1973DA1L, 1973SA1J, 1973SC1T, 1973SM1A, 1973TA1D, 1973TR1B, 1973UL1B, 1974BE1R, 1974BO2K, 1974DA1N, 1974LA1J, 1974LA1K, 1974SC1F, 1974TO1C, 1975AR1E, 1975AU1D, 1975BR1J, 1975DE1F, 1975DE1H, 1975EN1A, 1975KI1D, 1975NO1D, 1975SC1H, 1975SN1A, 1975TO1B, 1975TR1A). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1972BU29, 1973KI12, 1973MU11, 1973MU1B). Pion capture and reactions (See also reaction 37.): (1970BJ1A, 1970DO04, 1970WE1D, 1971DA10, 1971IN1A, 1971KA62, 1973AL1D, 1973AU06, 1973DI08, 1973EI01, 1973MI1H, 1973NA1H, 1973NA14, 1973RO10, 1974HO13, 1974KA07, 1974LE25, 1974LI15, 1974MI06, 1974MI11, 1974RE1E, 1974UL02, 1975AL1K, 1975EI1D, 1975GI1B, 1975HU1D, 1975KA1R, 1975KI1E, 1975RE01, 1975TO01, 1976GI01, 1976SH01). Other topics: (1969WA1C, 1970CO1H, 1970PE18, 1970SH1C, 1970SU1B, 1971AR03, 1971AU1G, 1971BA2Y, 1971GR16, 1971JA13, 1971SE1C, 1971NG01, 1972AN05, 1972CA37, 1972CH16, 1972HA57, 1972LE1L, 1973DE13, 1973GO1H, 1973JU2A, 1973KO1J, 1973KU03, 1973MA48, 1973RA1E, 1973SA25, 1973WI15, 1974CA1H, 1974MU13, 1974SI04, 1974ZU1A, 1975GR03, 1975KU01, 1975MO1M, 1976MA04, 1976PA03). Ground state: (1969LE1B, 1971TA1A, 1972GL06, 1972GU05, 1972LE1L, 1972LE1N, 1972VA36, 1973MA1K, 1973SA25, 1973SA30, 1973SU1C, 1974DE1E, 1974HA27, 1974MU13, 1974NE1B, 1975AL19, 1975BE31, 1975ME24, 1976PA03). Mass of ^{13}C:
μ = +0.702381 ± 0.000002 nm (1964LI14); μ = 0.7020 ± 0.0004 nm (1973CO1P). See also (1969WO03, 1971SH26, 1973SU1B, 1974SHYR).
See also Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS): Lifetimes of lowlying states of ^{13}C, and Table 13.6 (in PDF or PS): Summary of results on the total radiation widths of the lowlying levels of ^{13}C  ^{13}N.
The yield curves for d_{0} (E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV), t_{0} (E(^{7}Li) = 5 to 14 MeV) and α_{0} (E(^{6}Li) = 4 to 14 MeV) show broad, uncorrelated structures. Energyaveraged differential cross sections are also reported for a number of ^{12}B, ^{11}B and ^{10}B states (1971WY01). Total cross section measurements have been measured for E(^{7}Li) = 3.8 to 6.0 MeV for p_{0} → p_{2}, p_{3+4}, p_{5}; d_{0} → d_{3}, d_{4+5}, d_{6}; t_{0} → t_{2}; and α_{0}: the total cross sections generally increase smoothly with energy without showing any structure (1967KI03). The ^{11}C yield has been measured for E(^{6}Li) = 1.2 to 3.6 MeV by (1961NO05). See also ^{9}Be and ^{10}B in (1974AJ01), ^{11}B and ^{12}B in (1975AJ02), (1969KA1E) and (1972GA1E).
See (1970AJ04).
See (1970AJ04).
Earlier reports of the excitation of the first T = 3/2 state in this reaction have not been published: see (1970AJ04).
Resonances for n_{0} and n_{1}, for γrays from ^{12}C*(4.4, 12.7, 15.1) and resonances in the total neutron cross section are given in Table 13.8 (in PDF or PS). The yield of neutrons to ^{12}C*(7.66, 9.64) has been measured for E_{α} = 2.9 to 6.4 MeV and 5.9 to 6.4 MeV, respectively (1972OB01). The n_{0} and n_{1} yields for E_{α} = 1.5 to 7.5 MeV and the n_{2} yield for E_{α} = 3.8 to 7.5 MeV are reported by (1970VA23). Polarization measurements have been reported at E_{n} = 1.75 and 1.96 MeV (1969KL09; n_{0}), 2.55 MeV (1970ST15, 1970ST16; n_{0}), 2.6 MeV (1971KL04; n_{0}), 4.5 to 5.85 MeV (1973DE14^{†}; n_{0}, n_{1}) and 22.9 MeV (1973OK06; n_{0}, n_{1}). For earlier measurements see (1970AJ04). See also (1970TA06). For astrophysical implications see (1968DA1D, 1972OB01, 1975FO19). See also (1971AN1L, 1975KA26), (1971WA1D) and (1971EL1B; applied). Reaction (b) has been studied at a number of energies in the range E_{α} = 17 to 44 MeV (1970KR09).
^{†} The n_{0} cross section and polarization are described for E_{n} = 4 to 6 MeV in terms of five broad states: see Table 13.8 (in PDF or PS).
See (1968AJ02).
Excitation curves have been measured for E_{α} = 26.5 to 27.5 MeV for the d_{0} → d_{3}, d_{4+5} and d_{6} groups: no structure is observed (1975PU01). See also ^{11}B in (1975AJ02). At E_{α} = 26.0 to 27.5 MeV yield curves have been obtained for the t_{0}, t_{1} and t_{3} groups: the t_{2} group to ^{10}B*(1.74) is not populated at θ = 25° and 45°; the yield curves do not display structure (1974KE06).
A number of excitation functions have been measured for elastically scattered alpha particles (reaction (a)) for E_{α} = 1.4 to 20 MeV: these show considerable resonance structure with the variations being most prominent below 10 MeV but persisting up to 20 MeV (1965TA04, 1970GO1G, 1973GO15, 1974SA16). The parameters resulting from a bestfit of the excitation functions are displayed in Table 13.9 (in PDF or PS): see footnotes to that table for a summary of the most important caveats (1973GO15). For reactions (a) and (b) see ^{9}Be in (1974AJ01). For reaction (b) see (1973WE03). For a spallation study see (1974RA11).
At E(^{6}Li) = 23.8 MeV angular distributions are reported to ^{13}C*(0, 3.1, 3.6, 6.9, 7.5, 9.9, 10.8, 12.0, 13.3). There is some indication of the population of ^{13}C*(9.5, 13.9, 14.5, 15.2, 16.7, 18.5) (1971GO24). See also (1970OG1A, 1973OG1A).
At E(^{7}Li) = 5.6 to 6.2 MeV, angular distributions are reported for t_{0}, t_{1}, t_{2+3}, t_{4} (1969SN02). The t_{0} angular distribution has been measured for E(^{7}Li) = 1.7 to 1.9 MeV (1969KA1C). Many of the states populated in reaction 9 are also strongly populated in this reaction (1971GO24: E(^{7}Li) = 30.3 MeV). See also (1970OG1A, 1972GA1E).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{12}C) = 12 and 15 MeV involving the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85): the extracted neutron spectroscopic factors for these three states are 0.80, 1.02 and 0.89, respectively (1970BA49, 1971BA68).
See (1970AJ04).
The p_{0} and p_{1} yields from reaction (a), the d_{0} yield from reaction (b) and the α_{0} yield from reaction (c) have been determined for E_{t} = 0.8 to 2.0 MeV. There is no evidence of resonance behavior (1963HO19).
Proton groups have been observed to the first four states of ^{13}C: see (1959AJ76) and (1975WI04). Angular distributions of ground state protons have been measured at many energies up to E_{α} = 30.4 MeV: see (1970AJ04) and ^{14}N. The τ_{m} of ^{13}C*(3.85) is 9.0^{+2.5}_{1.5} psec (1968RI16), 10.7 ± 1 psec (1969HE22), 9.9 ± 0.9 psec (1970GA01). The intensity ratio for the transitions (3.85 → 3.68)/(3.85 → 0) is 0.55 ± 0.03. The cascade decay via ^{13}C*(3.09), relative to the g.s. decay, is (2.5 ± 0.5) × 10^{2}. E_{γ} = 3854 ± 1 keV (1969LI07). Studies of this reaction lead to J^{π} = 3/2^{} and 5/2^{+} for ^{13}C*(3.68, 3.85): see (1970AJ04) for a summary of the evidence and (1971HIZF). See also (1967SP09) and (1971BU1K; theor.).
Comparisons of the relative intensities of the ^{3}He groups in this reaction and of the triton groups in the mirror reaction (see reaction 11 in ^{13}N) at E(^{6}Li) = 18 MeV suggest that the following states are analogs: 6.86  6.36, 7.49  7.16, 9.50  9.00, 9.90  9.48, (10.82 + 10.75)  (10.36 + 10.36) [the first (set of) E_{x} is in ^{13}C, the second in ^{13}N]. An angular distribution is also reported for ^{13}C*(9.50) and the widths for ^{13}C*(7.55, 7.68, 9.50) are determined to be < 30, 60 ± 30 and < 30 keV, respectively (1974HO06).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{7}Li) = 5.20 MeV for the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3} and α_{4} groups (1966MC05).
At E(^{10}B) = 100 MeV angular distributions are reported for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.8) (1975NA15). See also (1970GO1B).
The 90° γ_{0} excitation curve measured for E_{d} = 1.0 to 4.2 MeV shows a resonance at E_{d} = 2.0 ± 0.1 MeV (^{13}C*(20.4)) with Γ_{lab} ≈ 0.6 MeV: the peak cross section is ≈ 1.1 μb/sr. The angular distributions of γ_{0} are isotropic to within 10% on and off (E_{d} = 3.6 MeV) resonance, consistent with E1 radiation (1973WE12).
The yield of neutrons and γrays has been measured for E_{d} = 0.2 to 11 MeV; observed resonances are displayed in Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS) (1958KA31, 1964KU09, 1965AL17, 1967DI01, 1972TH14). The yields of 4.4 and 15.1 MeV γrays have been measured by (1972TH14) for E_{d} = 2.7 to 5.0 and 4.0 to 4.8 MeV, respectively. Angular correlations for these two γrays are reported at E_{d} = 4.0, 4.5 and 4.8 MeV (1972TH14). For a listing of polarization measurements, see Table 13.11 (in PDF or PS): measurements at E_{d} = 11.8 MeV show that the transition to ^{12}C*(4.4) predominantly involves j = 1/2 for the transferred proton (1971HI09). See also (1970AJ04), (1970MI1G, 1975SE07; theor.) and ^{12}C in (1975AJ02).
Some measurements show that the thintarget yield rises smoothly from E_{d} = 0.3 to 3.1 MeV with no evidence of resonance: see (1970AJ04). However, (1964BR1A) and (1968CH05) report a resonance in the yields of p_{0}, p_{1} and p_{2}, and of γ_{1} and γ_{2}: see Table 13.10 (in PDF or PS). Polarization measurements at E_{d} = 10 and 12 MeV show that p_{j} = 1/2 for both the p_{0} and p_{1} transitions are 0.85 ± 0.15 (1970FI07, 1972FI1E, 1973FI1C). See also (1970VO09, 1974DA13, 1975HU1H) and ^{12}B in (1975AJ02).
A polarization measurement has been reported at E_{d} = 12.6 MeV (1971ZA04). See also (1970VE06) and ^{11}B in (1975AJ02).
For polarization measurements of t_{0} → t_{3} at E_{d} = 27.8 MeV see (1974VAZO). See also ^{10}Be and ^{10}B in(1974AJ01).
At low energies the excitation functions for α_{0} and α_{1} increase monotonically: see (1970AJ04). Then at E_{d} = 1.85 MeV a pronounced resonance is observed in the α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2} and α_{3} yields (1969FR03). Some gross structure is also observed in these yields for E_{d} = 1.0 to 3.2 MeV (1964BR1A, 1969FR03). See also ^{9}Be in (1974AJ01).
See ^{14}C.
Levels derived from proton groups are displayed in Table 13.12 (in PDF or PS). The gamma, neutron and αwidths of the first T = 3/2 state at E_{x} = 15.11 MeV are displayed in Table 13.7 (in PDF or PS) where they are compared with corresponding quantities for ^{13}N*(15.07) (1973AD02, 1975MA21). The particle decays of the T = 3/2 states show strong charge asymmetries indicating that the isovector and isotensor mixing amplitudes have similar magnitudes (1973AD02). See (1970AJ04) for the earlier work on this state. Angular distributions have been measured at many energies, see (1970AJ04) for the earlier work and (1970ME1N, 1970ME24, 1971ME01: E(^{3}He) = 3 MeV; Table 13.12 (in PDF or PS)) and (1973WU01, 1971WU1A: E(^{3}He) = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 MeV; most states below E_{x} = 10 MeV). For ^{13}C*(7.49, 7.55) Γ_{γ}/Γ = 0.3 ± 0.1%, < 0.1% (1971HIZF). See also (1970MA38, 1974GU1D; theor.).
Angular distributions for the d_{0} group have been measured at E_{α} = 23 and 25 MeV (1967AL16). See also (1971BU1K; theor.).
Angular distributions are reported at E(^{6}Li) = 4.72 MeV for α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}, α_{4} and α_{5+6+7} (1966MC05).
Angular distributions involving the ground state transitions have been measured at E(^{14}N) = 41, 77 and 113 MeV (1971LI11). See also (1970JA1B) and (1973DE35; theor.).
See (1968OK06) and (1972KU1H; theor.).
The thermal capture cross section is 3.4 ± 0.3 mb (1973MU14). Reported γtransitions are displayed in Table 13.13 (in PDF or PS). See also (1967MO05, 1967RA24, 1975LA1K, 1975SH18), (1970CL1C, 1973CL1E; astrophys.) and (1974MA10; theor.). At E_{n} = 14 MeV, there is some indication that γ_{0} peaks backwards (1975AR19).
The coherent scattering length a_{coh} = 6.6572 ± 0.0013 fm (1971KO1F, 1975KO29). (1973MU14) had adopted 6.65 ± 0.01 fm. A listing of recent σ_{t} measurements is displayed in Table 13.14 (in PDF or PS), and the recent polarization measurements are shown in Table 13.15 (in PDF or PS). See also (1972BU20, 1973FA06) and (1970GA1A) for a review of earlier angular distributions. A number of resonances have been observed for E_{n} = 2 to 20 MeV: see Table 13.16 (in PDF or PS). The parameters of the resonances with E_{n} > 6.3 MeV are poorly known. See also (1969BE1F, 1969FA1B, 1970AH1B, 1971CR06, 1974HE1E, 1976HO1B), (1971PL1C, 1972LA1F, 1973BR1C, 1975HA2C, 1975LA1K, 1975RO1G), (1970CO1J, 1970ER1A, 1970GN1A, 1970SH14, 1970YO1C, 1971CH01, 1971DO15, 1971GR48, 1971MI07, 1971WE08, 1972AD02, 1972FR09, 1972JO11, 1972PE11, 1972PE1H, 1972RO07, 1972RO08, 1973AD01, 1973CO27, 1973LE02, 1973MO1F, 1973WE06, 1974OL1D, 1974PH03, 1974ZA04, 1975CA05, 1976AH02; theor.), ^{12}C in (1975AJ02) and (1970AJ04).
From threshold to E_{n} = 19 MeV, twelve resonances are observed in the yield of 4.4 MeV γrays: see Table 13.17 (in PDF or PS) (1959HA13, 1968BO34). Cross sections for production of 4.4 MeV γrays have been reported at E_{n} = 5.8 to 7.5 MeV (1970DR11) and for the n_{0} and n_{1} groups at E_{n} = 8 to 14.5 MeV (1975HA1Z, 1975HA2D). Other inelastic cross sections to individual ^{12}C states have been measured by (1973VE03: E_{n} = 7.7, 8.2, 9.0 MeV) and by (1969GR30: E_{n} = 14.1 MeV). Earlier work is displayed in (1959AJ76, 1970AJ04). For reaction (b) see ^{12}C in (1975AJ02) and (1969GR30, 1975AN01). See also (1969RO1F, 1973VE03, 1974ROXP, 1975HA2C, 1975LA1K), (1970CA13; theor.) and (1974CR1E; applied).
See (1969BR1F, 1975BI1K) and (1970AJ04).
The cross section exhibits a weak resonance corresponding to E_{x} ≈ 20.5 MeV (1968RI02, 1972BO73) and stronger structures at E_{x} ≈ 21.5 MeV (1968RI02, 1970BA1L), 22.8 and 23.6 MeV (1970BA1L; abstract). See also (1971CU1B, 1972ED01, 1975LA1K, 1975MC19) and (1974OL03; theor.).
See (1974PO03, 1975LA1K, 1975MC19).
The cross section for the α_{0} group shows a broad structure at E_{n} ≈ 8 MeV (1963DA12). See also (1971SA31, 1973VE03, 1974ROXP). (1975HA2C, 1975LA1K) and ^{9}Be in (1974AJ01).
At E_{p} = 185 MeV, angular distributions have been observed for the π^{+} groups to the ground state of ^{13}C and to E_{x} = 3.08 ± 0.09, 3.80 ± 0.12, 6.87 ± 0.18, 7.57 ± 0.16 and 9.51 ± 0.22 MeV. The shape of the distributions and the differential cross sections to the various states are quite different: several kinds of reaction processes appear to be involved (1973DA24). See also (1972RH1A, 1973EI1B), (1973KE02, 1974GR1Q, 1975EI1B, 1975NO05, 1976LE02; theor.) and "Pion capture and reactions" section in the "GENERAL" section here.
Measurements on the proton groups are summarized in Table 13.18 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been studied at many energies: recent experiments are listed in Table 13.19 (in PDF or PS). For earlier work see (1959AJ76, 1970AJ04). Observed γrays are listed in Table 13.16 (in PDF or PS) of (1970AJ04): ground state decays have been observed for ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68, 3.85). ^{13}C*(3.68) decays via ^{13}C*(3.09) with a 1.6 ± 0.3% branch (1975TR07). ^{13}C*(3.85) also decays via ^{13}C*(3.68) with a 37 ± 4% branch (1966GO15), 36.0 ± 0.7% (1975TR07), with E_{γ} = 169.25 ± 0.04 keV (1969AL17) and via ^{13}C*(3.09) with a 0.6 ± 0.2% branch (1975TR07). Mixing ratios are given in (1970AJ04). Lifetimes of the first three excited states are displayed in Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS). Recent measurements give τ_{m} = 12.4 ± 0.8 psec (1974BE48), 13.0 ± 0.4 psec (1975RA29) for ^{13}C*(3.85): its nuclear gfactor is 0.59 ± 0.05 (1974BE48). Reaction (b) has been studied in a kinematically complete experiment at E_{d} = 5.00 to 9.85 MeV: there is some evidence for pn final state interaction (1973SA03). See also (1969PH1B, 1972GE1G). See also (1967SP09, 1970BO20, 1970HO37, 1973MU1H, 1975ZA06, 1976SC1G), (1974FO1J), (1969ST1D, 1970DO10, 1970EL01, 1970KU1B, 1970OH06, 1970OH1C, 1970PE1B, 1971BR1H, 1971BU02, 1971PE10, 1972DZ06, 1972GO27, 1973CO23, 1973CO27, 1973DO02, 1974GO02, 1974OR1A, 1975GR12, 1975HU01, 1975IS03; theor.) and ^{14}N.
At E_{t} = 12 MeV angular distributions have been studied by (1966GL01: d_{0} → d_{3}). See also (1969AR1B).
The angular distributions for the transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85) have been studied at E(^{3}He) = 40 MeV (1971ST21). The proton decay of various ^{14}N states to ^{13}C_{g.s.} has been studied by (1974NO01): see ^{14}N. See also (1970AJ04).
Angular distributions of the ^{3}He particles have been measured at E_{α} = 56 MeV (1969GA11: to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68 + 3.85)), 104 MeV (1972HA08: to ^{13}C(0)) and 139 MeV (1973SM03: to ^{13}C*(0, 3.85)). A detailed comparison has been made between the angular distributions of the ground state ^{3}He particles and of the tritons from the mirror reaction ^{12}C(α, t)^{13}N (1969GA11, 1972HA08). See also (1974HA32; theor.).
Angular distributions have been obtained at E(^{7}Li) = 36 MeV to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.85) (1973SC26). See also (1973KU12; theor.).
See (1974AN36) and (1972MO1E, 1973SC1J). See also (1970AJ04).
For reaction (a) see (1974AN36). See also (1972BR21; theor.). For (b) see reaction 60.
Angular distributions have been reported at E(^{14}N) = 78 MeV (1970VO02; transitions to both g.s., and also ^{13}N(0) + ^{13}C*(3.85)), 100 MeV (1974DE03: to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68 + 3.85, 7.3 ± 0.3 [may be due to 6.86 + 7.50 + 7.55 + 7.68]) and 154.8 MeV (1975NA15, 1975VO05, 1976NAZZ: to g.s. and 3.85). The ratio of the differential cross section to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and that to ^{13}N_{g.s.} (observed via ^{12}C(^{14}N, ^{13}C)^{13}N), as a function of θ, is approximately 1 as expected if mirror symmetry holds (1969VO01, 1970VO02, 1975VO05). See also (1970JA1B, 1973BR1C, 1973SC1J, 1973VO1E, 1974AN36, 1974SC1M, 1975HA1P) and (1970AN1D, 1973DE02, 1973DE35, 1974BR18, 1974BR37, 1975RE04; theor.).
See (1974CH1Q).
See (1970AJ04).
^{13}B decays to a number of states of ^{13}C: see Table 13.2 (in PDF or PS).
For τ_{m} studied by resonant scattering see Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS).
The cross section exhibits structure at 13.3 ± 1 [Γ = 5 ± 1 MeV] and at ≈ 22 MeV [Γ ≈ 7 MeV] (1957CO57, 1975PA09, 1976MC1L). Indications of structures at other E_{x} are reported by (1965BE1A, 1970FU09, 1976JU1A, 1976MC1L). ^{12}C*(15.11) [J^{π} = 1^{+}; T = 1] is populated to a large extent by neutrons emitted from the T = 3/2 component of the giant resonance in ^{13}C (1971MU11). ^{12}C*(4.4) is populated most strongly at ^{13}C*(13.3) (1975PA09). See also (1973AR1L), (1974KI03, 1974MA10; theor.) and (1973FR1F; applied). For reaction (b) see (1975PA09, 1976MC1L).
(1964DE12) report structures at E_{γ} = 18.5, 20.0, 23.5, 26.0 and 29.0 MeV. The main part of the cross section is in the 23.5 MeV peak which has Γ ≈ 3 MeV. A broad maximum near 25.5 MeV has been reported by (1956CO72, 1957CO57). The cross section to ^{12}B*(0.95) shows a broad maximum at E_{γ} = 25 MeV (1975PA09). See also (1974KI03; theor.).
See (1970AJ04).
The radius of ^{13}C, r_{rms} = 2.452 ± 0.047 [relative to r_{rms} of ^{12}C = 2.462 ± 0.022 fm] (1973FE13). See also (1967CR1C, 1970HE24, 1971BE25, 1971YA02) and (1970BR1C). The rms radius of the magnetization distribution of ^{13}C = 3.3 ± 0.3 fm (1975LA23). The elastic scattering has been studied for E_{e} = 120 to 750 MeV (1970HE24). A number of inelastic groups are seen: see Tables 13.20 (in PDF or PS) and 13.21 (in PDF or PS) (1970WI04, 1971BE51, 1971YA02). A distinct splitting of the giant resonance into two large peaks near E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV, with widths of ≈ 3 and ≈ 4 MeV, respectively, is observed. It is suggested that these are groupings of narrower peaks [see Table 13.21 (in PDF or PS)]. The E_{x} = 20.5 and 24.5 MeV resonances are probably T = 1/2 and T = 3/2, although the 4 MeV splitting is somewhat smaller than expected (1971BE51). See also reactions 50 and 51. See also (1970BR1C, 1972THZF, 1974DE1E, 1975BE1T, 1975SI1H) and (1970BE1G, 1970TI1C, 1973GA19, 1974BE10; theor.). At E_{e} = 43 MeV the energy and angular distributions of the protons emitted in reaction (b) suggest the involvement of ^{13}C*(21.8?. 24.2, 25.5, 27.5, 31.5) (1970WO1E, 1971SH09). See also (1973DO1L).
See ^{14}C.
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{p} = 1.37 to 2.38 MeV (1966GE03; p_{0}), 6.36 and 6.48 MeV (1971VA29; p_{1}), 7 MeV (1969GU02) and 30.4 MeV (1972GR02; p_{0}, p_{1}). Angular distributions of the 3.09 MeV γrays are isotropic for E_{p} up to 5 MeV consistent with the assignment J = 1/2 for the ground state (1960BA35). For τ_{m} measurements see (1968RI16) and Table 13.5 (in PDF or PS). See also (1970OH1C, 1973KA04, 1974GU1D; theor.). Reaction (b) has been studied at E_{p} = 7.9 to 12 MeV (1970OT1A, 1971OT02) and at E_{p} = 46 MeV (1974MI05). One or more ^{13}C states at E_{x} = 7.5 MeV seem to be involved in the sequential decay (1971OT02). See also (1974AV02; theor.), ^{13}N and ^{14}N.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{d} = 0.71 MeV (1971PU01; d_{0}), 4.7, 5.0 and 5.3 MeV (1968CO04; d_{0}), 12.8 MeV (1973VA07; d_{1}), 13.7 MeV (1970GU01; d_{0}, d_{1}, d_{2+3}) and 15 MeV (1974BU06). See also (1970LI1E), (1974GU1D; theor.) and ^{15}N.
Angular distributions of elastically scattered ^{3}He have been studied at E(^{3}He) = 12, 15 and 18 MeV (1966KE08), 14 MeV (1970NU02), 35.7 MeV (1969AR08) and at 40 MeV (1969BA06). Angular distributions at E(^{3}He) = 40 MeV have also been reported to ^{13}C states at E_{x} = 3.09, 3.68, 3.85, 6.86, 7.55 ± 0.03, 8.86 ± 0.03 and 11.84 ± 0.03 MeV. ^{3}He groups to ^{13}C*(9.50 ± 0.03) and (15.11) are also reported: the latter is weak (1969BA06). See also (1974CH58; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured at E_{α} = 15, 18 and 20 MeV (1971CO14), 18 to 24 MeV (1973KU18), 18.3 MeV (1973LE28), 24 MeV (1974FE08), 26.6 MeV (1972KU19), 28.4 MeV (1965KO1A), 33.4 MeV (1967AR17) and 40.5 MeV (1966HA19). In addition, (1967AR17) report distributions to ^{13}C*(3.68, 7.5), (1966HA19) to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68 + 3.85, 7.5) and (1965KO1A, 1974FE08) to ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68 + 3.85, 6.85, 7.5). See also (1974CH58, 1974KU15; theor.).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered Li ions have been studied at E(Li) = 4.5, 5.8, 9.0 and 13 MeV (1976PO02; ^{6}Li and ^{7}Li [not 4.5]), 20 MeV (1969BE90; ^{6}Li and ^{7}Li), 28 MeV (1972BA52; ^{6}Li) and 34 MeV (1973SC26; ^{6}Li and ^{7}Li). The inelastic scattering to ^{13}C*(3.09) in reaction (a) has also been studied (1973SC26). See also (1971BA2V, 1972WA31; theor.).
Angular distributions for reaction (a) have been studied at E(^{12}C) = 10 to 30 MeV (1968GO1H; elastic), 15 and 19 MeV (1971BO52, 1972BO68; elastic), 20 to 36 MeV (1973CH1L: to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68 + 3.85)) and 87 MeV (1971LI11; elastic). See also (1971WI1J, 1972CH1H, 1974CR03), (1970GO1B, 1973BR1C, 1973SC1B, 1974GO1L), (1970VO1D, 1973BA2K, 1973DE35, 1973MC1J, 1973SA1K, 1973VO04, 1974GA1L, 1974IM1B, 1975DE09, 1975VO1B; theor.) and ^{12}C in (1975AJ02). For reaction (b), elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(^{13}C) = 15 to 24 MeV (1973HE12), while for reaction (c) the elastic distribution has been measured at E(^{13}C) = 15 MeV (1972BO68). See also (1972HA2B), (1974GO1L) and (1973MC1J, 1973VO04, 1975DE09, 1975VO1B; theor.).
The elastic angular distribution has been studied at E(^{14}N) = 19.3 MeV (1971VO01). See also (1973MC1J, 1973VO04, 1975DE09; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured for reaction (a) at E(^{16}O) = 10 to 30 MeV (1968GO1H) and 14, 17 and 20 MeV (1970BA49) and at E(^{13}C) = 36 MeV (1975WE1D, 1975RA33), and, for reaction (c), at E(^{18}O) = 15, 20 and 24 MeV (1971KN05). See also (1974CH1Q). For reaction (b) see (1974CH1Q). See also (1974BE1J; theor.).
See ^{13}N.
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{p} = 12 MeV (1966GL01; d_{0}), 14.5 MeV (1971CU01; d_{0}, partial d_{2}), 18.5 MeV (1963LE03; d_{1}, d_{2}, d_{3}) and 27 MeV (1975CE04; d_{0} → d_{3}). The spectroscopic factors for ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85) are 1.4, 0.02, 1.8 and 0.13, respectively (1975CE04).
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{d} = 12 MeV (1966GL01; t_{0} → t_{3}) and 14 MeV (1976WE01; t_{0} → t_{3}; polarized deuterons). The spectroscopic factors for ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 3.85) are 1.00, 0.06, 1.0 and 0.08, respectively (1976WE01). See also ^{16}N in (1977AJ02).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{3}He) = 6, 8 and 10 MeV (1971CO14; α_{0}) and 44.8 MeV (1966BA13; α_{0}, α_{2} and α to ^{13}C*(15.11)).
See (1972KU1H; theor.).
See (1972BO68).
See (1975VO1B).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{16}O) = 20, 25 and 30 MeV (1975SC35, 1975SC42): they are well described by DWBA (fixed range approximation). See also (1973BR1C).
See (1972EY01).
For E_{bs} = 15.5 to 29.5 MeV a large fraction of the neutron yield appears to be associated with sequential decay to ^{12}C via ^{13}C*(7.75, 8.86, 11.80) (1970SH06, 1972GE11). Angular distributions measured in the giant resonance region of ^{14}N are consistent with the proton decay of (p_{1/2})^{1} (2s1d) giant dipole states to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and of (p_{3/2})^{1} (2s1d) states to ^{13}C*(3.68) (1974BA37). The population of ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.85) has also been reported (1970TH01: E_{bs} = 29 MeV). See also ^{14}N and (1973KI05; theor.).
Angular distributions of d_{0} have been determined at E_{n} = 14.1 to 14.7 MeV: see (1970AJ04). See also (1971MI12). Gamma rays with energies of 3.686 and 3.853 MeV are reported by (1971NY03: ± 3 keV). Differential cross sections for formation of ^{13}C*(3.09, 3.68) have been measured for E_{n} = 10.1 to 11.0 MeV by (1970DI1A). See also ^{15}N and (1970BO1K; theor.).
For reaction (a) see (1969BA1F). At E_{p} = 46 MeV, the summed proton spectrum shows transitions to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.5, 11.9) (1970WE09, 1970WE1J). At E_{p} = 460 MeV ^{13}C*(0, 7.8, 12.3) are populated: the two excited states are formed by ejection of p_{3/2} protons. There is also some indication of other structure (1966TY01). See also (1972CH21, 1973DE1T; theor.).
At E_{d} = 52 MeV, angular distributions have been measured for the ^{3}He particles to ^{13}C*(0, 3.09, 3.68, 6.86, 7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9 ± 0.15) and analyzed by DWBA: J^{π} = 5/2^{}, 1/2^{}, 3/2^{} and 3/2^{}, respectively, are assigned to ^{13}C*(7.5, 8.86, 9.50, 11.9) (1968HI01). As expected, angular distributions of ^{3}He and of tritons (from ^{14}N(d, t)^{13}N) to analog states are closely the same: this has been shown for the ground state ^{3}He and triton groups (1966DE1C, 1968GA13: E_{d} = 28.5 MeV; (1974LU06): E_{d} = 15 MeV) and for the groups to ^{13}C*(8.9 + 9.5) and ^{13}N*(9.2) (1968HI01: E_{d} = 52 MeV). See also ^{16}O in (1977AJ02) and (1974DA1D; theor.).
Observed particle groups at E_{t} = 2.6 MeV are displayed in Table 13.22 (in PDF or PS) (1962SI04). See also ^{16}O in (1977AJ02).
This sequential reaction has been studied at E_{α} = 22.9 MeV (1969BA17).
An angular distribution has been obtained at E(^{6}Li) = 32 MeV for the transition to ^{13}C_{g.s.} and ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) [for the mirror reaction see reaction 38 in ^{13}N]: the relative cross sections show a deviation from isospin symmetry which is attributed to Coulomb effects. ^{13}C*(3.09) was also populated (1971GR44, 1971ZE1C).
See (1966GA04).
Not reported.
At E_{p} = 43.7 MeV, ^{3}He groups have been observed to eleven states of ^{13}C: see Table 13.22 (in PDF or PS) (1966CE02, 1968FL03). Angular distributions of the ^{3}He particles to these states are generally found to be in agreement with DWBA predictions, using intermediate coupling wave functions to obtain the twonucleon structure factors (1968FL03). Detailed comparisons are made with the results of the mirror reaction ^{15}N(p, t)^{13}N: the (p, t) transitions are generally stronger than expected relative to the mirror (p, ^{3}He) transitions. This may arise from interference effect terms due to a spinorbit interaction in the optical potential, or to interference terms between directreaction and core excitation (1968FL02, 1968FL03). A study of both angular distributions and analyzing powers in this reaction and in the mirror (p, t) reaction shows that DWBA generally fails to predict the analyzing powers (1974MA12: E_{p} = 43.8 MeV; pol. protons). Angular distributions have also been measured for the ^{3}He groups to ^{13}C*(0, 3.68, 7.55) at several energies in the range E_{p} = 24.0 to 43.5 MeV (1974PI05, 1975MI01). See also (1969TE1A, 1972HA1X) and ^{16}O in (1977AJ02).
Alphaparticle groups have been observed to excited states at E_{x} = 3.083 and 3.677 MeV (1951MA08: ± 5 keV) and 8.80 ± 0.04 MeV (1957WA01: other states were excited but their E_{x} were not determined). Angular distributions of α_{0} have been measured at E_{d} ≈ 1 MeV and ≈ 21 MeV: see (1970AJ04). See also (1967SP09).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV, the angular distribution of the ^{6}Li particles to ^{13}C_{g.s.} has been measured (1968MI05).
See (1972KU1H; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at many energies. The earlier results are listed in (1970AJ04). Recent measurements have been carried out at E_{n} = 4.9 MeV (1972KI12; α_{0}), 13.9 MeV (1971BR33; α_{0}, α_{1}, α_{2+3}) and 14.1 MeV (1970AJ03; α_{1+2+3}; (1973BO26); α_{0}, α_{1+2+3}). Excitation energies derived from γray measurements are 3685 ± 3 and 3854 ± 3 keV (1971NY03). See also (1970DI1C) and ^{17}O in (1977AJ02). See also (1969KA1D, 1970BR17) and (1973CL1E; astrophys. questions).
At E_{α} = 42 MeV the angular distribution of the reaction involving ^{13}C(0) and ^{7}Be*(0 + 0.43) has been measured by (1972RU03).
This reaction has been studied at E(^{14}N) = 79 MeV (1976MO03) and 155 MeV (1975NA15).
See (1966DE09).
See (1967DE03).
At E_{n} = 14.3 MeV the cross section is 42 ± 8 mb (1971KA18). See also (1966PE08).
