
^{10}B (2004TI06)(See Energy Level Diagrams for ^{10}B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of ^{10}B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for ^{10}B located on our website at: (nucldata.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/10b.shtml). See also 2 in (1988AJ01) [Electromagnetic Transitions in A = 510] (in PDF or PS), 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) and 10.19 [Electromagnetic transitions in ^{10}B] (in PDF or PS).
Mass of ^{10}B: The mass excess adopted by (2003AU03) is 12050.7 ± 0.4 keV. Isotopic abundance: (19.9 ± 0.2)% (1984DE53).
B(E2)(↓) for ^{10}B*(0.72) = 4.18 ± 0.02 e^{2} · fm^{4} (1983VE03). Electromagnetic transitions: Detailed information on electromagnetic transition strengths in ^{10}B is displayed in 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and 10.20 (in PDF or PS). 10.19 (in PDF or PS) relates to levels below the proton threshold and draws on 10.21 (in PDF or PS) for the lifetimes of bound levels and on 10.22 (in PDF or PS) for radiative widths from the ^{6}Li(α, γ)^{10}B reaction. With the exception of the 5.11 MeV 2^{} level with one nucleon in the sd shell and the 5.18 MeV 1^{+} level with two nucleons in the sd shell, the remaining levels in 10.19 (in PDF or PS) have been established as being dominantly pshell in character. Furthermore, analysis of the empirical pshell wave functions which best fit the electromagnetic data shows that the pshell states all have mainly [42] spatial symmetry and that L and K_{L} (to distinguish the two D states) are rather good quantum numbers (1979KU05). 10.20 (in PDF or PS) relates to levels above the proton threshold studied mainly via the ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B reaction. The region contains a number of overlapping resonances including a number of isospinmixed swave resonances involving the analogs of the 5.96 MeV 1^{} and 6.26 MeV 2^{} levels of ^{10}Be. The lowest negativeparity states also have mainly [42] spatial symmetry and in addition (51) SU3 symmetry. Thus, the 1^{} and 2^{} T = 1 states above are mainly ^{1}P and ^{1}D in character while for the T = 0 states the dominant components are as follows: ^{3}P for the 5.11 MeV 2^{} state, ^{3}D for the 6.13 MeV 3^{} state, ^{3}F for the 6.56 MeV 4^{} state, and ^{3}P for the 6.88 MeV 1^{} state.
Observed resonances are displayed in 10.22 (in PDF or PS). For a discussion of isovector paritymixing between the 5.11 MeV and 5.16 MeV levels of ^{10}B see (1984NA07) in which thicktarget yields were measured with a ^{6}Li polarized target to obtain a paritymixing parameter. In later work (1989BA24) strengths and mixing ratios of γtransitions from these two levels were measured. However, it is clear that for the transitions to the 1.740 MeV level contributions from the doubleescape peaks of stronger transitions to the 0.718 MeV level were not properly accounted for. For the 2^{+}; 1 → 0^{+}; 1 transition, the published 4% branch disagrees with the limit of < 0.5% in 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and would correspond to a B(E2) of 140 W.u. Similarly, the branch of 10.9% for the 2^{}; 0 → 0^{+}; 1 transition corresponds to a B(M2) of 130 W.u. The mixing ratios from 3point angular distributions also appear unreliable. Total transition strengths of ωγ_{cm} = 0.046 ± 0.004 eV and 0.385 ± 0.020 eV were determined for the 2^{} and 2^{+} resonances, respectively, which are in good agreement with the values in 10.22 (in PDF or PS). For a preliminary report involving a target of laserpolarized ^{6}Li atoms see (1987MU13). See also the astrophysicsrelated work in (1996RE16, 1997NO04).
The excitation functions for neutrons [from threshold to E_{α} = 15.5 MeV] and for deuterons [E_{α} = 9.5 to 25 MeV; d_{0}, d_{1} over most of range] do not show resonance structure: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). Reactionmechanism studies of (α, p) and (α, d) at E_{α} = 26.7 MeV are reported in (1990LI37) and (1989LI24), respectively. A calculation of the (α, d) cross section at E_{α} ≤ 24 MeV is described in (1994FU17).
Excitation functions of α_{0} and α_{1} have been reported for E_{α} ≤ 18.0 MeV and 9.5 to 12.5 MeV, respectively: see (1974AJ01). Reported anomalies are displayed in 10.23 (in PDF or PS). Elastic scattering and VAP measurements are reported for E(pol. ^{6}Li) = 15.1 to 22.7 MeV [see (1984AJ01)] and at E(pol. ^{6}Li) = 19.8 MeV (1986CAZT; also TAP). Differential cross section measurements at E_{α} = 50 MeV are reported by (1992SA01, 1996BU06). Theoretical work reported since the previous review include: studies of targetclustering influence on exchange effects (1988LE06); knockout exchange contributions in RGM (1989LE07); a description of a doublefolding model potential (1993SI09); calculations with a multiconfiguration RGM (1995FU11); a study of continuumcontinuum coupling for ^{6}Li → α + d breakup data (1995KA07); a foldingpotential analysis for E_{α} = 3  50.5 MeV (1995SA12); and a study of coupling effects of resonant and continuum states for ^{6}Li(α, α) at E_{α} = 40 MeV (1996SI13). Small anomalies have been reported in reaction (b) corresponding to ^{10}B*(8.67, 9.65, 10.32, 11.65): see (1984AJ01). See, however, 10.18 (in PDF or PS). See also ^{6}Li in (1988AJ01, 2002TI10), (1987BU27), (1986ST1E; applications) and (1986YA15, 1988LE06; theor.).
Angular distributions of deuteron groups have been determined at E(^{6}Li) = 2.4 to 9.0 MeV (d_{0}, d_{1}, d_{3}) and 7.35 and 9.0 MeV (d_{4}, d_{5}). The d_{2} groups corresponding to the isospinforbidden reaction ^{6}Li(^{6}Li, d_{2})^{10}B (0^{+}; 1) were observed weakly in early work (see (1974AJ01)) and ^{12}C in (1980AJ01). More recent angular distribution measurements (1993WI13) at E(^{6}Li) = 3  8 MeV deduced the isospinbreaking matrix element. A reactionmechanism study of ^{6}Li(^{6}Li, d)^{10}B for E_{cm} = 7.2  13.3 MeV is described in (1987AR13).
Capture γrays have been observed for E(^{3}He) = 0.8 to 6.0 MeV. The γ_{0} and γ_{5} yields [to ^{10}B*(0, 4.77)] show resonances at E(^{3}He) = 1.1 and 2.2 MeV [E_{res} = 0.92 and 2.1 MeV], the γ_{1} and γ_{4} yields [to ^{10}B*(0.72, 3.59)] at 1.4 MeV and the γ_{4} yield at 3.4 MeV: see 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). Both the 1.1 and 2.2 MeV resonances [^{10}B*(18.4, 19.3)] appear to result from swave capture; the subsequent decay is to two 3^{+} states [^{10}B*(0, 4.77)]. Therefore the most likely assignment is J^{π} = 2^{}; T = 1 for both [there appears to be no decay of these states via α_{2} to ^{6}Li*(3.56) which has J^{π} = 0^{+}; T = 1: see reaction 9]. The assignment for ^{10}B*(18.8) [1.4 MeV resonance] is 1^{+} or 2^{+} but there appears to be α_{2} decay and therefore J^{π} = 2^{+}. ^{10}B*(20.1) [3.4 MeV resonance] has an isotropic angular distribution of γ_{4} and therefore J^{π} = 1^{}, 2^{}. The γ_{2} group resonates at this energy which eliminates 2^{}. See (1974AJ01) for references.
The excitation curve is smooth up to E(^{3}He) = 1.8 MeV and the n_{0} yield shows resonance behavior at E(^{3}He) = 2.2 and 3.25 MeV, Γ_{lab} = 270 ± 30 and 500 ± 100 keV. No other resonances are observed up to E(^{3}He) = 5.5 MeV. See 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01), (1986AB10; theor.) and (1974AJ01).
The yield of protons has been measured for E(^{3}He) = 0.60 to 4.8 MeV: there is some indication of weak maxima at 1.1, 2.3 and 3.3 MeV. Measurements of A_{y} for the groundstate group at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 14 MeV (1983LE17, 1983RO22) and 33 MeV (1983LE17) have been reported. Measurements of differential cross sections and analyzing powers were reported at E(^{3}He) = 4.6 MeV (1995BA24). The polarization at E(^{3}He) = 14 MeV was measured by (1984ME11, 1984TR03). P = A in this and in the inverse reaction [see reaction 4 in ^{12}C in (1985AJ01) for some additional comments]. Proton yields as a function of angle were measured for E(^{3}He) = 93 MeV by (1994DO32). Astrophysicsrelated measurements at E_{cm} = 0.5  2 MeV (1990RA16) and E(^{3}He) = 160, 170 keV (2002YA06) have been reported. Astrophysical Sfactors were deduced. A theoretical study of the reaction mechanism and astrophysical implications are described in (1993YA01). Calculations for the reaction and the inverse reaction to deduce timereversalinvariance violation amplitude features were reported in (1988KH11). For earlier references see (1984AJ01). See also (1986AB10; theor.).
Yields of deuterons have been measured for E(^{3}He) = 1.0 to 2.5 MeV (d_{0}) and yields of tritons are reported for 2.0 to 4.2 MeV (t_{0}): a broad peak is reported at E(^{3}He) ≈ 3.5 MeV in the t_{0} yield. See (1979AJ01) for references. Polarization measurements are reported at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 33.3 MeV for the deuteron groups to ^{8}Be*(16.63, 17.64, 18.15) and for the triton and ^{3}He groups to ^{7}Be*(0, 0.43) and ^{7}Li*(0, 0.48, 4.63): see (1984AJ01). Measurements of the yields for deuterons, alphas, tritons and ^{3}He as a function of angle at E(^{3}He) = 93 MeV are described in (1994DO32). A compilation and analysis of cross section data for studying evidence for clusters in ^{7}Li is presented in (1995MI16).
Excitation functions have been measured for E(^{3}He) = 1.3 to 18.0 MeV: see (1974AJ01). The α_{0} group (at 8°) shows a broad maximum at ≈ 2 MeV, a minimum at 3 MeV, followed by a steep rise which flattens off between E(^{3}He) = 4.5 and 5.5 MeV. Integrated α_{0} and α_{1} yields rise monotonically to 4 MeV and then tend to decrease. Angular distributions give evidence of the resonances at E(^{3}He) = 1.4 and 2.1 MeV seen in ^{7}Li(^{3}He, γ)^{10}B: J^{π} = 2^{+} or 1^{}; T = (1) for both [see, however, reaction 5]: Γ_{α} is small. The α_{2} yield [to ^{6}Li*(3.56), J^{π} = 0^{+}; T = 1] shows some structure at E(^{3}He) = 1.4 MeV and a broad maximum at ≈ 3.3 MeV: see 10.10 (in PDF or PS) in (1979AJ01). Polarization measurements are reported at E(pol. ^{3}He) = 33.3 MeV to ^{6}Li*(0, 2.19, 3.56): see (1984AJ01). See also (1983AN1D, 1984PA1E, 1994DO32).
Angular distributions are reported at E_{α} = 28 and 32 MeV for the n_{0}, n_{1} and n_{2} groups (1985GUZQ). See (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) for the earlier work. Neutron spectra and photon yields from ^{7}Li(α, n) neutron sources for E_{α} = 5.5  5.8 MeV were measured by (1993VL02).
The breakup of ^{10}B was studied (2001LE05) in an experiment with 76 MeV ^{12}C incident on Li_{2}O. Breakup of ^{10}B into α + ^{6}Li, α + ^{6}Li*(3^{+}), ^{8}Be + d and ^{9}Be + p was observed. Evidence was obtained for two new ^{10}B states at E_{x} = 7.96 ± 0.07 MeV, Γ = 285 ± 91 keV and E_{x} = 9.58 ± 60 MeV, Γ = 257 ± 64 keV. The energy spectrum is dominated by T = 0 states that decay into ^{6}Li_{g.s.} + α.
Parameters of the observed resonances are listed in 10.24 (in PDF or PS). An angleintegrated excitation function has been measured over the energy range E_{p} = 75 to 1800 keV (1995ZA04). This establishes the absolute (p, γ) cross sections for this region with considerably more certainty than existed at the time of the previous review (1988AJ01). 10.24 (in PDF or PS) lists six resonances in this energy region with 5 rather broad resonances and a narrow J^{π} = 0^{+}; T = 1 resonance (Γ_{cm} = 2.65 keV) at E_{p} = 1038 keV. The excitation function is dominated by three broad unresolved resonances at E_{p} = 938, 980, and 992 keV. The existence of the 938 keV resonance has been established from analyses of the excitation functions for γray transitions to specific final states. However, the 2^{+} and 2^{} levels near 990 keV have similar widths and dominant groundstate radiative transitions and thus cannot be distinguished from consideration of the (p, γ) data alone. The γ transitions from this reaction are given in 10.20 (in PDF or PS) and the information obtained is summarized in the following discussion. The E_{p} = 330 keV resonance (E_{x} = 6.87 MeV) is ascribed to swave protons because of its comparatively large proton width [see ^{9}Be(p, p)] and because of the isotropy of the γ radiation. The strong E1 transitions to both T = 0 and T = 1 final states in 10.20 (in PDF or PS) indicate considerable isospin mixing (1956WI16) because only T = 0 ↔ T = 1 isovector E1 transitions are possible in ^{10}B. The transition to the 1.74 MeV level implies J^{π} = 1^{} and its relative strength, together with the existence of substantial deuteron and alpha widths, indicates a dominance of T = 0 for the 6.87 MeV state. Most of the data in 10.20 (in PDF or PS) comes from an analysis of the excitation functions for γray transitions to specific final states (1964HO02). The E_{p} = 938 keV resonance was originally given a tentative J^{π} = 2^{}; T = 0 assignment. The 1^{} assignment was made for a resonance in elastic proton scattering at E_{p} = 945 ± 10 keV with a width Γ_{cm} = 130 ± 10 keV and the suggestion was made that this level is the missing isospinmixed partner of the 6.87 MeV level (1969MO29). An estimate of the isospin mixing was made in (1969RO12). See also the appendix in (2001BA47). The relative E1 strengths for the transitions to the 1^{+}; 0 levels at 0.72 and 2.15 MeV imply T = 1 isospin admixtures of 15% and 21%, respectively, and the strength of the 7.43 → 1.74 E1 transition expected for this level of admixture is just below the observed upper limit. The strong M1 transition to the 2^{}; 0 level at 5.11 MeV, expected to be mainly ^{1}P → ^{3}P, implies an isospin admixture of ≈ 8.5% but this should be treated as a lower limit because some of the 7.43 → 5.11 strength may be due to one or both of the two levels near 7.48 MeV (1964HO02). However, it does appear from Fig. 6 of (1975AU02) that the transition is mainly from the 7.43 MeV level. The T = 1 component of the 1^{} doublet corresponds to the 5.96 MeV level of ^{10}Be shifted downwards by ≈ 400 keV with respect to pshell levels on account of the smaller Coulomb energy shift for (sd) orbits. The 0.93 MeV resonance is also observed in the ^{9}Be(p, d) and ^{9}Be(p, α) reactions via the T = 0 component in the wave function (1956WE37). The α width which results from the isospin mixing is sufficient to account for the strength of the 7.43 → 0.72 transition observed via the ^{6}Li(α, γ) reaction and calls into question the existence of a 2^{}; 0 level at 7.43 MeV proposed by (1975AU02). The prominent E_{p} = 992 keV resonance was originally assigned as 2^{}; 1 largely on account of the apparent swave formation and the strength of the groundstate transition (1964HO02). However, earlier elastic proton scattering data had indicated the existence of a pwave 2^{+} state near 980 keV and an swave 2^{} state near 998 keV (1956MO90). See also (1969MO29). Then, lowenergy electron scattering [see ^{10}B(e, e')] revealed a very strong M1 transition to a state at this energy (1965SP04) which can account for over 70% of the (p, γ) cross section. This state was identified with the second 2^{+}; 1 level predicted by shell model calculations with similar spatial structure to the ^{10}B ground state. The analog in ^{10}Be is at 5.96 MeV and is populated as a strong GamowTeller transition in chargeexchange reactions on ^{10}B [see reaction 28 in ^{10}Be]. Subtraction of the M1 strength associated with the 2^{+}; 1 level leaves substantial groundstate transition strength for the 2^{} level, indicating a T = 1 component. The swave resonance at E_{p} = 1290 ± 30 keV also has a strong groundstate transition and was assigned as 2^{}; 1 (1964HO02). Thus, there appears to be a doublet of isospinmixed 2^{} levels with the T = 1 component corresponding to the 6.26 MeV level of ^{10}Be. The narrow E_{p} = 1083 keV level is formed by pwave protons and has J^{π} = 0^{+} (see reaction 14 [^{9}Be(p, p)] and reaction 16 [^{9}Be(p, α)]). The isotropy of the γ rays supports this assignment. The strong M1 transitions to the J^{π} = 1^{+}; T = 0 levels at 0.72, 2.15, and 5.18 MeV [ 10.22 (in PDF or PS)] indicate T = 1. The analog is at 6.18 MeV in ^{10}Be. The width of the 5.18 MeV level of ^{10}B observed in the decay is 100 ± 10 keV (1975AU02). The 7.56 MeV 0^{+}; 1 and 5.18 MeV 1^{+}; 0 levels are the lowest (sd)^{2}, or 2ℏω, levels in ^{10}B. The strong M1 transition between them is consistent with these assignments. Since the previous review (1988AJ01) several measurements and analyses have been done for low proton energies. Branching ratios and angular distributions for capture to ^{10}B states at E_{x} = 0, 0.718, 1.740 and 2.154 MeV were measured for proton energies E_{p} = 40  180 keV (1992CE02). Astrophysical Sfactors were deduced. Measurements of an angle integrated Sfactor for E_{p} = 75  1800 keV were reported by (1995ZA04). The spectrum is dominated by three broad peaks and the analysis included interference effects with the directcapture process. The best fit was obtained for J^{π} values of 1^{}, 2^{}, and 2^{} and the resulting resonance energies were E_{p}(lab) = 380 ± 30, 989 ± 2 and 1405 ± 20 keV. The widths were Γ_{lab} = 330 ± 30, 90 ± 3 and 430 ± 30 keV, respectively. The lowenergy Sfactor is about one third of that obtained by (1992CE02). A measurement by (1998WU05) with 100 keV polarized protons on a thick ^{9}Be target determined analyzing powers for capture to the ^{10}B ground state and the first three excited states. Astrophysical Sfactors were deduced using a directcaptureplusresonance model. These data were used in an evaluation of thermonuclear protoncapture rates by (2000NE09). Polarized protons at E_{p} = 280  0 keV were used (1999GA21) to measure the analyzing power for the ground state transition. Comparison of the results to calculations showed that the analyzing power could be reproduced only by the interference of direct capture with the tail of a 2^{+} resonance that was taken to be at 7.478 MeV (the 7.469 MeV state in 10.18 (in PDF or PS)). Although these results indicate that the resonance strength in the (p, γ) channel near 7.48 MeV is predominantly 2^{+}, the data do not rule out a small contribution from an additional state. Existing data on ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B were reanalyzed within the framework of an Rmatrix method by (1999SA39). Parameters of resonances at E_{p}(cm) = 296, 890, 972 and 1196 keV were determined and compared (see Table II of (1999SA39)) with parameters given in (1988AJ01, 1995ZA04, 1998WU05). Data for proton energies up to E_{p} = 1800 keV and γtransitions to the four lowest ^{10}B states were fitted using Rmatrix formulae by (2002BA09). A good fit was obtained with two 1^{} levels, two 2^{} levels, one 0^{+} level and one 2^{+} level. Level parameters derived from these fits using different combinations of input data are presented in Tables 5, 6, and 8 of (2002BA09). In related work since (1988AJ01), asymptotic normalization coefficients obtained from peripheral transfer reactions such as ^{10}B(^{7}Be, ^{8}B)^{9}Be at low energies have been used to determine ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B Sfactors (1999SA39). Extracted asymptotic normalization coefficients used for determining stellar reaction rates for ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B are discussed in (2003KR14). See also the astrophysicsrelated work (1996RE16, 1997NO04, 2000IC01). For further information concerning ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B experiments for E_{p} > 1330 keV, refer to (1988AJ01).
As noted in (1988AJ01), "Resonances in the neutron yield occur at E_{p} = 2562 ± 6, 4720 ± 10 and, possibly, at 3500 keV with Γ_{cm} = 84 ± 7, ≈ 500 and ≈ 700 keV. These three resonances correspond to ^{10}B*(8.890, 10.83, 9.7): see 10.13 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Cross section measurements for the (p, n) and (p, n_{0}) reactions have been obtained by (1983BY01; E_{p} = 8.15 to 15.68 MeV) [see also for a review of earlier work]. They indicate possible structure in ^{10}B near 13  14 MeV (1983BY01)." "The E_{p} = 2.56 MeV resonance is considerably broader than that observed at the same energy in ^{9}Be(p, α) and ^{9}Be(p, γ) and the two resonances are believed to be distinct. The shape of the resonance and the magnitude of the cross section can be accounted for with J^{π} = 3^{} or 3^{+}; the former assignment is in better accord with ^{10}Be*(7.37). For J^{π} = 3^{}, θ^{2}_{n} = 0.135, θ^{2}_{p} = 0.115 (R = 4.47 fm): see (1974AJ01)." "The analyzing power for n_{0} has been measured for E_{p} = 2.7 to 17 MeV (1980MA33, 1983BY02, 1986MU07) as has the polarization in the range E_{p} = 2.7 to 10 MeV (1983BY02). See (1983BY02, 1986MU07) for discussions of the σ(θ), A_{y}(θ) and P(θ) measurements. Polarization measurements have also been reported at E_{pol. p} = 3.9 to 15.1 MeV and 800 MeV: [see (1984AJ01)] and at 53.5, 53.9 and 71.0 MeV (1988HE08) [K^{y'}_{y}, K^{z'}_{z}]." A summary of monoenergetic neutron beam sources for E_{n} > 14 MeV is presented in (1990BR24). See also the measurements at E_{p} = 300, 400 MeV reported in (1994SA43). Neutron spectra were measured for E_{p} = 20  40 MeV (1996SH29) and for E_{p} = 3  5 MeV (2001HO13). See also the measurements of σ(E_{n}) for E_{p} = 35 MeV (1987OR02) and the thicktarget yield measurements of (1987RA23). This reaction was used by (1987RA32) at E_{p} = 135 MeV to deduce GamowTeller transitions B(GT) and the quenching factor. Measurements of σ(θ) at E_{p} = 35 MeV were used to study the isovector part of optical potentials through analog transitions. Calculations of σ(θ, E_{n}) for E_{p} = 1 GeV are described in (1994GA49). See also the analysis for E_{p} = 800 MeV to study pionproduction medium effects (1998IO03). See also ^{9}B and references cited in (1988AJ01).
The elastic scattering resonances up to E_{x} = 8 MeV shown in 10.25 (in PDF or PS) come from (1956MO90, 1969MO29). Below E_{p} = 0.7 MeV only swaves are present exhibiting a resonance at E_{p} = 330 keV with J^{π} = 1^{}. Apart from the tentative 1^{+} assignment at E_{p} = 1200 keV, which was introduced to satisfy a need for resonant pwave formation (1969MO29), there is good agreement between the results of (1956MO90) and (1969MO29). The analysis requires a large dwave admixture with the swave protons forming the E_{p} = 1340 keV resonance (1969MO29). Between E_{p} = 0.8 and 1.6 MeV polarization and cross section measurements are well fitted by a phaseshift analysis using only ^{3}S_{1}, ^{5}S_{2}, ^{5}P_{1}, and ^{5}P_{2} phases (1973RO24). However, the spin assignments of 1^{+} for a state at E_{x} = 7.48 MeV and 1^{} for a state at E_{x} = 7.82 MeV to fit this data are in disagreement with the assignments in 10.25 (in PDF or PS) and with other data. In particular, these assignments leave no state near 7.48 MeV to explain the strong M1 transition observed in electron scattering and no state near 7.8 MeV to explain the strong radiative transition to the ground state (2001BA47). The 2^{+} state at 8.07 MeV has been observed via inelastic electron scattering and given the same spinparity assignment. It has also been observed via inelastic pion scattering. The next prominent elastic scattering resonance occurs at E_{p} = 2.56 MeV (E_{x} = 8.89 MeV) and has a width of ≈ 100 keV. The analogs of the 7.37 MeV 3^{} and 7.54 MeV 2^{+} levels of ^{10}Be are known to be nearly degenerate at 8.89 MeV in ^{10}B. The 3^{} level (Γ ≈ 85 keV) dominates in the ^{9}Be(p, p) and ^{9}Be(p, n) reactions while the 2^{+} level (Γ ≈ 40 keV) dominates the ^{9}Be(p, α_{2}γ)^{6}Li cross section (1977KI04). In fits to elastic scattering in this region (1983AL10), including polarization data (1976MA58), a number of other relatively narrow states have been introduced between 8.4 and 9.1 MeV. The data of (1983AL10) extends to E_{p} = 5 MeV and three more levels have been proposed. The highest at E_{p} = 4.72 MeV (E_{x} = 10.83 MeV) occurs at an energy where resonances have been observed in a number of other reaction channels. The assignment of J^{π} = 2^{+}; T = 1 is consistent with that obtained for a resonance observed in the ^{9}Be(p, p_{0}), ^{9}Be(p, p_{2}), and ^{9}Be(p, α_{2}) reactions (1974YA1C).
Polarization measurements (reaction (b)) are reported at E_{pol. p} = 23.06 MeV: see (1984AJ01). For a study at E_{p} = 190 and 300 MeV see (1987GR11). See also (1985SE15).
Protoninduced reactions on ^{9}Be are of considerable interest in regard to primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis. Subsequent to the previous compilation (1988AJ01), there have been two studies of the reactions (a) and (b) at low proton energies (1997ZA06, 1998BR10). Excitation functions and angular distributions for E_{p} = 16 to 390 keV have been measured by (1997ZA06). Both polarized and unpolarized protons have been used by (1998BR10) to measure angular distributions and analyzing powers for E_{p} = 77 to 321 keV. Earlier measurements (1973SI27) provided excitation functions for E_{p} = 30 to 700 keV and angular distributions for E_{p} = 110 to 600 keV. The prominent feature in the excitation functions for both reactions, expressed as values of the astrophysical S factors, is a peak at E_{p} ≈ 310 keV attributed to the 6.87 MeV 1^{} level of ^{10}B. The analyses of both (1997ZA06) and (1998BR10) indicate substantial direct reaction contributions to the ^{9}Be(p, d)^{8}Be cross section at energies below the E_{p} ≈ 310 keV resonance. The lowenergy data and attempts to fit it are summarized by (2001BA47) where an Rmatrix fit of almost all the data is performed for E_{p} ≤ 700 keV. The discussion in (2001BA47) includes arguments questioning some of the ^{10}B J^{π} assignments of (1988AJ01). In particular, it is argued in Appendix A of (2001BA47) that the dominantly T = 1 isospinmixed partner of the 6.87 MeV 1^{}; 0 + 1 level exists near E_{x} = 7.44 MeV (see reaction 12 and 10.20 (in PDF or PS)) where a resonance is seen in reactions (a) and (b) (1956WE37). 10.26 (in PDF or PS) shows resonances observed in early measurements of excitation functions for deuterons and αparticles. Up to E_{p} = 2.3 MeV, the information is taken from a multilevel Rmatrix analysis of the p, d_{0}, α_{0}, α_{1}, and γ channels by (1969CO1J) [see also (1964HO02, 1969MO29)] omitting only the nearly pure T = 1 states at 7.47 MeV (2^{+}) and 7.56 MeV (0^{+}). (1969CO1J) give reduced widths and radiative widths for all these states. The separation of the 3^{}/2^{+}; T = 1 doublet at E_{p} = 2.56 MeV comes from an Rmatrix analysis of the (α_{2}γ) and p_{0} yields by (1977KI04). The higher resonances appear on a background of direct reaction contributions and, given the assignment of both α_{2} and α_{0} or α_{1} decays in the same or different experiments (1959MA20, 1974YA1C), it is not clear whether the resonances are due to isospinmixed or unresolved states. The existence of a 3.5 MeV resonance (E_{x} = 9.7 MeV) included in the previous compilation (1988AJ01) and assigned T = 1 was based on a small bump in the ^{9}Be(p, αγ)^{6}Li cross section between the 2.56 MeV and 4.5 MeV resonances (1959MA20). However, there is no known analog state in ^{10}Be and no resonance structure is observed in the ^{9}Be(n, α)^{6}He spectrum (1957ST95). Other measurements at higher energies include those at E_{p} = 50 MeV (1989GU08), E_{p} = 25, 30 MeV (1992PE12), E_{p} = 2.475 MeV (1994LE08; applications), E_{p} = 40 MeV (1997FA17), and E_{p} = 60 MeV (1987KA25). For earlier measurements see (1988AJ01). Polarization measurements have been made in the range E_{p} = 0.30 to 15 MeV and at 185 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and at E_{pol. p} = 60 MeV (1987KA25; A_{y}; inclusive deuteron spectra). Theoretical work and other analyses of these reactions are discussed in (1987GO27, 1991AB04, 1992KO26, 1992KW01, 1996YA09, 1997NO04, 1999TI07, 2000GA49, 2000GA59).
Neutron groups are observed corresponding to the ^{10}B states listed in 10.27 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured for E_{d} = 0.5 to 16 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)], at 8 MeV (1986BA40; n_{0} → n_{5}, n_{6+7+8}; also at 4 MeV to the latter) and at 18 MeV (1987KAZL; n_{0}, n_{1}) and at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MeV (1995VU01; n_{0}, n_{6}). At 25 MeV differential cross sections were measured and analyzed for levels below 6.57 MeV (1992MI03). Spectroscopic factors were deduced and compared with previous data and with coupledreactionchannel calculations. See Tables 2 and 3 of (1992MI03). Observed γtransitions are listed in 10.16 (in PDF or PS) of (1979AJ01). See 10.19 (in PDF or PS), 10.20 (in PDF or PS) and 10.21 (in PDF or PS) here for the parameters of radiative transitions and for τ_{m}. Measurements of neutron angular distributions for E_{d} = 15, 18 MeV were analyzed (1988KA30) in the framework of the peripheral model of direct reactions. Neutron yields and differential cross sections at E_{d} = 40 MeV were measured by (1987SC11). See also the neutron measurements at E_{d} = 2.6  7 MeV (1993ME10), E_{d} = 21 MeV (1994CO26), E_{d} = 20.2 MeV (1998BE31), E_{d} = 5  10 MeV (1998OL04), E_{d} = 0.5  1.54 MeV (1999AB38), and E_{d} = 9.8 MeV (1999JO03). Applicationrelated yields and spectra were measured at E_{d} = 1.5, 1.95, 2.5 and 5 MeV by (2002COZZ). At low energies (E_{d} = 24  111 keV), cross sections were measured and astrophysical S factors were deduced by (2001HO23). An analysis of differential cross sections for E_{d} = 7  15 MeV was used to deduce optical model parameters and asymptotic normalization coefficients (2000FE08). ^{10}B level information resulting from ^{9}Be(d, n) experiments prior to (1988AJ01) was summarized in (1988AJ01). See also ^{11}B in (1985AJ01) and references cited in (1988AJ01). Angular distributions of neutrons from ^{9}Be(d, n) at E(^{9}Be) = 3  7 MeV were measured by (2002MA20).
Deuteron groups have been observed to a number of states of ^{10}B: see 10.27 (in PDF or PS). Prior to the previous review (1988AJ01) angular distributions had been reported at E(^{3}He) = 10  33.3 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)]. More recently, differential cross sections were measured and analyzed at E(^{3}He) = 32.5 MeV (1993AR14), 22.3  34 MeV (1996AR07), and 42 MeV (1998AR15). Nuclear vertex constants and spectroscopic factors were deduced for the population of ^{10}B levels at E_{x} = 0.0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15 MeV. As noted in (1988AJ01), spectroscopic factors obtained in the (d, n) and (^{3}He, d) reactions are not in good agreement: see the discussions in (1974KE06, 1980BL02, 1992MI03). See also the theoretical discussions in (1986AV01, 1989BO26, 1990KA17, 1997VO06).
Angular distributions have been studied at E_{α} = 27, 28.3 and 43 MeV [see (1979AJ01)], at 30.2 MeV (1984VA07; t_{0}, t_{1}, t_{3}, t_{4}) and at 65 MeV (1980HA33). In the latter experiment DWBA analyses have been made of the angular distributions to ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 5.2, 5.92, 6.13, 6.56, 7.00, 7.5, 7.82, 8.9) and spectroscopic factors were derived. The angular distributions to ^{10}B*(4.77, 6.03) could not be fitted by either DWBA or coupled channel analyses. In general coupledchannels calculations give a better fit to the 65 MeV data than does DWBA (1980HA33). Comparisons with other oneproton stripping reactions [(d, n) and (^{3}He, d)] are discussed in (1980HA33) as well as in (1997VO06).
At E(^{7}Li) = 34 MeV angular distributions have been obtained for the ^{6}He ions to the first four states of ^{10}B. Absolute values of the spectroscopic factors are S = 0.88, 1.38 (p_{1/2} or p_{3/2}), 1.40, and 0.46 (p_{1/2}), 0.54 (p_{3/2}) for ^{10}B*(0, 0.74, 1.74, 2.15) (FRDWBA analysis): see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AL1G). At E(^{7}Li) = 14.13 MeV a measurement of secondary beam production yields was reported by (1991BE49). Cross sections have been measured for reaction (b) at E(^{10}B) = 100 MeV to obtain asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) (1997MU19, 1998MU09, 2001KR12). Astrophysical Sfactors for ^{9}Be(p, γ)^{10}B were deduced. In work described in (2000FE08) ANC's were deduced from a set of proton transfer reactions at different energies to study the uniqueness of the ANC method. For reaction (c), angular distributions were measured at E_{lab}(^{11}B) = 45 MeV (2003KY01) optical parameters for the ^{10}B + ^{10}Be interaction. For reaction (d) angular distributions were measured at E(^{12}C) = 65 MeV for transitions to ^{10}B levels at 0.0, 0.72, 1.74 and 2.15 MeV (2000RU05). Data were analyzed within the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method. It was found that twostep processes are important for all transitions.
See ^{10}Be.
The yield of the n_{1} group has been studied for E_{p} = 0.9 to 2.0 MeV: see ^{11}B in (1990AJ01) and (1986TE1A). An analysis of data for E = 0.95  1.9 MeV and application of dispersion theory of reaction excitation functions at twoparticle channel thresholds was reported in (1988DU06).
Absolute measurements have been made of the ^{10}B(γ, n) cross section from threshold to 35 MeV with quasimonoenergetic photons; the integrated cross section is 0.54 in units of the classical dipole sum (60NZ/A MeV · mb). The (γ, 2n) + (γ, 2np) cross section is zero, within statistics, for E_{γ} = 16 to 35 MeV: see (1979AJ01) and (1988DI02). The giant resonance is broad with the major structure contained in two peaks at E_{x} = 20.1 ± 0.1 and 23.1 ± 0.1 MeV (σ_{max} ≈ 5.5 mb for each of the two maxima): see (1979AJ01). (1987AH02) [and H. H. Thies, private communication] [using bs] report two broad [Γ ≈ 2 MeV] maxima at 20.2 and 23.0 MeV [ ± 0.05 MeV] (σ = 5.0 and 6.0 mb, respectively; ± 10%) and a minor structure at E_{x} = 17.0 MeV. For reaction (b), differential cross section measurements were reported at E_{γ} = 66  103 MeV (1988SU14) and at 57.6 and 72.9 MeV (1998DE13). See also the knockout mechanism analysis described in (1997JO07). For reaction (c) see (1988SU14). For a DWIA study of reaction (d) for E_{γ} = 164 MeV, see the analysis reported in (1994SA44). See also ^{9}Be, and the earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).
Inelastic electron groups for which extensive formfactor measurements are available are displayed in 10.28 (in PDF or PS). Transverse form factors in the momentumtransfer range q = 2.0  3.8 fm^{1} were measured for ^{10}B*(0, 1.74, 5.16) by (1988HI02). Measurements spanning the range q = 0.48  2.58 fm^{1} were made by (1995CI02) to determine longitudinal and transverse form factors for ^{10}B levels up to E_{x} = 6.7 MeV with the exception of the broad E_{x} = 5.18 MeV level. The experimental form factors are compared with the results of extensive shellmodel calculations (1995CI02). Similar shellmodel calculations of transverse scattering form factors for the 0, 1.74, and 5.16 MeV levels are reported in (1994BO04). In (1995CI02), analyses that determined the r.m.s. radius of the groundstate charge distribution to be 2.58 ± 0.05 ± 0.05 fm are described. This value is consistent with the tabulated value of 2.45 ± 0.12 fm (1987DE43). In an appendix, B(E2) values derived from the longitudinal form factors (1995CI02, 1966SP02, 1976FA13, 1979AN08) are given for the 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 5.92, and 6.03 MeV levels. The B(E2) value for the 4.77 MeV level is known to be very small and the longitudinal form factor appears to be dominated by the C0 multipole. The results of an analysis by the same method [by coauthor D.J.M.; see (2004MIZX)] are listed in 10.28 (in PDF or PS), together with similar analyses for other states for which the form factors appear to be dominated by a single multipole. The effects of including electron distortion, not taken into account in the transition strengths reported in the previous tabulation (1988AJ01), are significant. The previous tabulation also included information on states at 8.07 and 8.9 MeV from (1979AN08) and at 10.79 and 11.56 MeV from (1976FA13). The C2 strength reported for the 8.07 MeV level, analyzed as a 2^{+} level, was such that the level should have been very strongly populated by inelastic pion scattering and this is not the case (1988ZE01). For the 8.9 MeV excitation, the contributions from the 2^{+}; 1 and 3^{}; 1 members of the doublet near this energy cannot be separated. In the 11 MeV region, there is evidence for considerable M1 strength (1976FA13). For reaction (b) see ^{10}Be. For reactions (c) and (d) see (1984AJ01) and (1997JO07). See also the earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).
The inelastic scattering of 162 MeV pions has been studied (1988ZE01) over the angular range 35° to 100° in the laboratory system and the data were analyzed with a model that incorporates shellmodel wave functions into a distortedwave impulse approximation formalism. Reduced transition probabilities were obtained for lowlying states. Higher states, or groups of unresolved states, at 7.0, 7.8, 8.07, 8.9, 9.7, 10.7, 11.5, and 12.8 MeV were studied.
Angular distributions have been studied for E_{n} = 1.5 to 14.1 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01)] and at 3.02 to 12.01 MeV (1986SAZR, 1987SAZX; n_{1} → n_{5}), 8 to 14 MeV (1983DA22; n_{0}) and 9.96 to 16.94 MeV (1986MU08; n_{0}). Measurements were made by (1990SA24) for E_{n} from 3.02 MeV up to 12.01 MeV. See also the experimental study of (1988RE09) and the optical model analysis of (1996CH33). See also ^{11}B in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01) and (1984TO02).
Angular distributions have been measured for a number of energies between E_{p} = 3.0 and 800 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 10 to 17 MeV (1986MU08; p_{0}). Differential cross sections have been measured (2001CH78) from E_{p} = 0.5  3.3 MeV in 5° steps from 100°170°. Cross sections and polarization observables for 200 MeV polarized protons were measured by (1992BA76; p_{0}, p_{1}). See also the E_{p} = 200 MeV measurements and analyses reported in (1991LE22). Microscopic model analyses are reported for E_{p} = 25, 30, 40 MeV by (2000DE61) and for E_{p} = 200 MeV by (1997DO01). 10.29 (in PDF or PS) displays the states observed in this reaction. Inelastic scattering data were used to deduce the deformation parameters, β_{L}. The γray results are shown in 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and 10.20 (in PDF or PS). See also (1979AJ01). For τ_{m} see 10.21 (in PDF or PS) (1983VE03). Axions may cause e^{+}e^{} pairs in competition with γray emission in an isoscalar M1 transition: a search for axions was undertaken in the case of the 3.59 → g.s. [2^{+} → 3^{+}] transition. It was negative (1986DE25). A beam dump experiment and other attempts to observe axions are discussed in (1987HA1O). For reaction (b) at E_{p} = 1 GeV see (1985BE30, 1985DO16) and (1974AJ01). See also (1988KRZY), (1985KI1B, 1988KOZL; applied) and ^{11}C in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01).
Angular distributions have been reported at E_{d} = 4 to 28 MeV: see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01). Observed deuteron groups are displayed in 10.29 (in PDF or PS). The very low intensity of the group to ^{10}B*(1.74) and the absence of the group to ^{10}B*(5.16) is good evidence of their T = 1 character: see (1974AJ01). See also the cross section measurements at E_{d} = 13.6 MeV reported in (1991BE42).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered tritons have been measured at E_{t} = 1.5 to 3.3 MeV: see (1974AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{3}He) = 4 to 46.1 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 2.10 and 2.98 MeV (1987BA34; elastic). L = 2 gives a good fit of the distributions of ^{3}He ions to ^{10}B*(0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 6.03): derived β_{L} are shown in 10.19 (in PDF or PS) of (1979AJ01). See also 10.29 (in PDF or PS) here, ^{13}N in (1986AJ01) and see the StrongAbsorption Model analysis for E(^{3}He) = 41 MeV reported in (1987RA36).
Angular distributions have been measured for E_{α} = 5 to 56 MeV [see (1974AJ01, 1979AJ01, 1984AJ01)] and at 91.8 MeV (1985JA12; α_{0}). Measurements of cross sections relative to Rutherford scattering at large angles for E_{α} = 1  3.3 MeV were reported by (1992MC03). Data for E_{α} = 1.5  10 MeV were compiled and reviewed for depthprofiling applications in (1991LE33). Reaction (b) has been studied at E_{α} = 24 and 700 MeV: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01). See also (1983GO27, 1985SH1D; theor.).
Elasticscattering angular distributions have been studied at E(^{6}Li) = 5.8 and 30 MeV: see (1979AJ01). A model for calculating departures from Rutherford backscattering for Lithium targets is described in (1991BO48). For reaction (b), elastic scattering angular distributions were studied at E(^{7}Li) = 24 MeV: see (1979AJ01). Differential cross section measurements at E(^{7}Li) = 39 MeV were reported in (1988ET02).
Elastic scattering differential cross section measurements at E(^{7}Be) = 84 MeV have been reported (1999AZ02, 2001AZ01, 2001GA19, 2001TR04). The results were used along with ^{10}B(^{7}Be, ^{8}B) data to deduce asymptotic normalization coefficients for the virtual transitions ^{8}B → ^{7}Be + p and to calculate the astrophysical S factor and directcapture rates for ^{7}Be(p, γ)^{8}B. See also the analysis in (2002GA11). For reaction (b), the elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(^{10}B) = 20.1 and 30.0 MeV (1983SR01). For yield and cross section measurements see (1983SR01, 1986CU02). See also the calculations of (1984IN03, 1986RO12).
Elastic angular distributions (reaction (a)) have been studied at E(^{10}B) = 8, 13 and 21 MeV (see the references cited in (1979AJ01)) and at E(^{10}B) = 4  15 MeV (1975DI08). These data were used by (2000RU05) to study the energy dependence of optical model parameters. For reaction (b) see the references cited in (1988AJ01). See also (2000RU05).
Elastic angular distributions have been measured at E(^{10}B) = 18 and 100 MeV for reaction (a) [see (1979AJ01)] and at 18  46 MeV [see (1984AJ01)] and 42.5, 62.3 and 80.9 MeV for reaction (b) (1985MA10). For yield, cross section and fusion experiments see (1983DA20, 1983MA53, 1985MA10, 1988MA07) and (1984AJ01). For other references on these reactions, see (1988AJ01).
Angular distributions have been reported at E(^{10}B) = 100 MeV and E(^{14}N) = 73.9 and 93.6 MeV (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01), and at 38.1, 42.0 and 50 MeV (1988TA13). For fusion cross section studies see (1983DE26, 2001DI12) and the references cited in (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01, 1988AJ01).
Elastic angular distributions (for reaction (a)) have been studied at E(^{10}B) = 33.7 to 100 MeV and at E(^{16}O) = 15  32.5 MeV (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01), at E_{cm} = 14.77, 16.15 and 18.65 MeV (1988KO10), and for reactions (a), (b) and (c) at E(^{16}O) = 16  64 MeV (1994AN05). For elastic cross sections for reaction (c) at E(^{18}O) = 20, 24 and 30.5 MeV, see (1974AJ01). For a study of the time scales for binary processes for the ^{16}O + ^{10}B system at E_{cm} = 17  25 MeV see (2002SU17). See also (2001DE50). For yield and fusion cross section measurements see (1993AN08, 1993AN15, 1994AN05) and earlier references cited in (1988AJ01).
The elastic scattering has been investigated for E(^{19}F) = 20 and 24 MeV for reaction (a) and E(^{10}B) = 65.9 MeV for reaction (b): see (1974AJ01, 1984AJ01).
The elastic scattering for both reactions has been studied at E(^{10}B) = 87.4 MeV: see (1984AJ01). The elastic scattering for reaction (b) has been measured at E(^{10}B) = 34 MeV by (1985WI18).
The elastic scattering for all three reactions has been studied at E(^{10}B) = 41.6 and ≈ 50 MeV [and also at 33.7 MeV for reaction (b)]: see (1984AJ01). See also (1984TE1A).
The elastic scattering has been studied at E(^{10}B) = 44 MeV for reaction (a) (1985WI18) and at 46.6 MeV for reaction (b): see (1984AJ01).
The halflife of ^{10}C is 19.290 ± 0.012 sec (1990BA02): the decay is to ^{10}B*(0.72, 1.74) with branching ratios of (98.53 ± 0.02)% (1979AJ01) and (1.4645 ± 0.0019)% [world average (1999FU04)], see (1991KR19, 1991NA01, 1995SA16, 1999FU04) for measurements since (1988AJ01): an upper limit for decay to ^{10}B*(2.15), ≤ 8 × 10^{4}%, is given in (1979AJ01). The excitation energies of ^{10}B*(0.72, 1.74) are 718.380 ± 0.011 keV and 1740.05 ± 0.04 keV, respectively, which were determined from deexcitation γrays with E_{γ} = 718.353 ± 0.010 keV and 1021.646 ± 0.014 keV (1988BA55, 1989BA28). See (2003SU04) for discussion of B(GT) values. The 0^{+} → 0^{+} superallowed βdecay branch for ^{10}C decay to ^{10}B*(1.74) is important for determining the V_{ud} matrix element and for testing the unitarity of the CabibboKobayashiMaskawa matrix. The V_{ud} matrix element is determined by ftvalues; for ^{10}C, this depends on the ^{10}C*(0, [0^{+}]) → ^{10}B*(1.74, [0^{+}]) branching ratio, 1.4645 ± 0.0019 [J^{π} in brackets], the ^{10}C halflife (1990BA02), and the decay energy to the ^{10}B*(1.74) state, 1907.86 ± 0.12 keV (1998BA83). The experimental ft value is 3037 ± 8, which yields log ft = 3.4825 ± 0.0014. Various corrections to the ftvalues, to account for nuclear structure and isospin effects, are discussed in (1991RA09, 1992BA22, 1993CH06, 1994BA65, 1996SA09, 1998TOZQ, 2000BA52, 2000HAZU). After correction, the ft value is ≈ 3068.9 ± 8.5 (99FU04), which by itself satisfies the unitarity test of the CKM matrix. However, higher precision measurements are desirable since the satisfaction of CKM unitarity, based on all 0^{+} → 0^{+} decays, continues to be debated in the literature (2002HA47, 2002TO19, 2002WI09, 2003WI01).
The intensities of the transitions to ^{10}B*(3.59, 5.16) [T = 0 and 1, respectively] depend on the region of the giant dipole resonance in ^{11}B from which the decay takes place: it is suggested that the lowerenergy region consists mainly of T = 1/2 states and the higherenergy region of T = 3/2 states: see ^{11}B in (1980AJ01). See also ^{11}B in (1985AJ01, 1990AJ01) and (1984AL22).
Angular distributions of deuteron groups have been measured at several energies in the range E_{p} = 17.7 to 154.8 MeV [see (1979AJ01)] and at 18.6 MeV (1985BE13; d_{0}, d_{1}). The population of the first five states of ^{10}B and of ^{10}B*(5.2, 6.0, 6.56, 7.5, 11.4 ± 0.2, 14.1 ± 0.2) is reported. Data at E_{p} = 33 MeV was used (1991AB04) in a test of CohenKurath wave functions and intermediate coupling. For reaction (b) see (1985BE30, 1985BO05; 1 GeV). Cross sections σ(E) for both reactions (a) and (b) are calculated in a "quasiquantum multistep direct reaction" theory described in (1994SH21). See also references cited in (1988AJ01).
Angular distributions have been measured at E_{d} = 11.8 MeV (t_{0} → t_{3}; l = 1) [see (1974AJ01)] and at 18 MeV (1987GUZZ, 1988GUZW). A combined DWBA and dispersiontheory analysis of cross section data is described in (1995GU22). Vertex constants and spectroscopic factors were deduced.
Reported levels are displayed in 10.30 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured at a number of energies between E(^{3}He) = 1.0 and 33 MeV [see (1974AJ01)] and at 23.4 MeV (1987VA1I; α_{0}, α_{1}). For the decay of observed states see 10.19 (in PDF or PS) and 10.20 (in PDF or PS). The α  α angular correlations (reaction (b)) have been measured for the transitions via ^{10}B*(5.92, 6.03, 6.13, 6.56, 7.00). The results are consistent with J^{π} = 2^{+} and 4^{+} for ^{10}B*(5.92, 6.03) and require J^{π} = 3^{} for ^{10}B*(6.13). There is substantial interference between levels of opposite parity for the αparticles due to ^{10}B*(6.56, 7.00): the data are fitted by J^{π} = 3^{+} for ^{10}B*(7.00) and (3, 4)^{} for ^{10}B*(6.56) [the ^{6}Li(α, α) results then require J^{π} = 4^{}]. See, however, reaction 16, and see (1974AJ01) for the references. See also (1988GOZB; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(^{7}Li) = 34 MeV involving ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15) and ^{8}Li_{g.s.} (as well as ^{8}Li*(0.98) in the case of the ^{10}B_{g.s.} transition) (1987CO16).
For reaction (a) see (1986SH1M) and ^{12}C in (1990AJ01). Reaction (b) was studied at E_{γ} = 189  427 MeV (1987KA13), 83  133 MeV (1988DA16), 80  159 MeV (1993HA12), 300 MeV (1995CR04), 80  157 MeV (1995MC02), 150  400 MeV (1996HA16), 114  600 MeV (1996LA15), 250  600 MeV (1998HA01), 120  400 MeV (1998MA02), 120  150 MeV (1998YA05), 150 MeV (1999KH06) and 150  700 MeV (2000WA20). Measurements with polarized photons at energies E_{γ} = 160  350 MeV were reported by (1999FR12, 2001PO19). Analyses of data and theoretical calculations are described in (1989VO01, 1994RY02, 1998RY01, 1999IR01, 2002GR05). For earlier work see the references cited in (1988AJ01).
Cross section measurements at E_{n} = 40  56 keV for determining efficiency of neutron detectors were reported in (1994MO41). Calculated cross sections are tabulated in (1989BR05). See also (1985FR07, 1987FR16; E_{n} = 319 to 545 MeV) and (1986DO12).
At E_{π+} = 180 MeV and E_{π} = 220 MeV, ^{10}B*(0.72, 2.15) are populated: see (1984AJ01). At E_{π+} = 150 MeV momentum distributions of pions to unresolved states of ^{10}B are reported by (1987HU13).
Angular distributions of ^{3}He ions have been measured for E_{p} = 39.8, 51.9 and 185 MeV: see (1979AJ01). ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77, 5.16, 5.92, 6.56, 7.50, 8.90) are populated. A calculation of ^{3}He and αparticle multiplicities is described in (1987GA08). For reaction (b) see (1985DE17); E_{p} = 58 MeV; ^{10}B*(0.72, 1.74)) and (1984AJ01). Calculations of cross sections for E_{p} = 58 MeV and 0.7 GeV are described in (1990LO18) and (1987ZH10), respectively. See also the references cited in (1988AJ01).
Alpha groups have been observed to most of the known states of ^{10}B below E_{x} = 7.1 MeV: see 10.23 (in PDF or PS) in (1974AJ01). Angular distributions have been measured for E_{d} = 5.0 to 40 MeV: see (1979AJ01). Singleparticle Svalues are 1.5, 0.5, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, for ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77). A study of the m_{s} = 0 yield at E_{d} = 14.5 MeV (θ = 0°) leads to assignments of 3^{+}, 2^{} and (3^{+}, 4^{}) for ^{10}B*(4.77, 5.11, 6.56). The population of the isospinforbidden group to ^{10}B*(1.74) [α_{2}] has been studied with E_{d} up to 30 MeV: see ^{14}N in (1986AJ01). See also (1984LOZZ).
Angular distributions have been reported at E_{α} = 42 and 46 MeV: see (1979AJ01). At E_{α} = 65 MeV, an investigation of the ^{6}Li breakup shows that ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 2.16, 3.57, 4.77, 5.2, 5.9, 6.0) are involved: see (1984AJ01). See also the cross section measurements at E_{α} = 33.8 MeV (1987GA20) and at E_{α} = 90 MeV (1991GL03).
At E(^{7}Li) = 78 MeV angular distributions have been measured to ^{10}B*(0, 2.15) (1986GLZV).
Angular distributions (reaction (a)) involving ^{10}B*(0, 0.7) have been studied at E(^{12}C) = 49.0 to 75.5 and 93.8 MeV. Angular distributions (reaction (b)) involving ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59) have been measured at E(^{14}N) = 53 MeV and 78.8 MeV (not to ^{10}B*(3.59)): see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01) for references. See also (1986AR04, 1986CR1A, 1986MOZV).
Differential cross sections were measured (1988AB11) at E_{p} = 18  45 MeV. Measurements at E_{p} = 30.95 MeV were reported by (1988BA30). Known pshell levels at 0, 0.72, 1.74, 2.15, 3.59, 4.77, 5.16, 5.92, 6.03 and 7.47 MeV were excited (1988AB11, 1988BA30). Analyses in both these studies used DWBA direct pickup calculations using a triton cluster form factor and the shell model calculations of (1975KU01). Spectroscopic factors were deduced. For earlier work at E_{p} = 5.8  18 MeV and 43.7 and 50.5 MeV see (1979AJ01). See also references cited in (1988AJ01).
See (1986VDZY; E_{p} = 50 MeV). See also (1986GO28; theor.).
At E_{d} = 80 MeV angular distributions are reported to ^{10}B*(0, 0.72, 2.15, 3.59, 4.8, 6.04, 7.05, 8.68): see (1979OE01).
See (1985WI18).
The breakup of ^{10}B was studied (1989NA03, 1992NA01) in an experiment with an E/A = 35 MeV ^{14}N beam incident on ^{nat}Ag. In the breakup of ^{10}B into α + ^{6}Li the 4.77 MeV 3^{+} and 6.56 MeV 4^{} states were observed together with unresolved groups of states near 5.1, 6.0, and 7.0 MeV. In the ^{9}Be + p channel peaks centered near 6.9, 7.5, and 8.9 MeV were observed. Similar results have been obtained for an ^{36}Ar beam incident on ^{197}Au (1992ZH08).
