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16O (1971AJ02)

(See Energy Level Diagrams for 16O)

GENERAL: See also (1959AJ76) and Table 16.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS).

Shell model: (1957WI1E, 1959BR1E, 1959FE1A, 1959PA1A, 1960TA1E, 1960TA1C, 1961BA1E, 1961TR1B, 1962BA1F, 1962GI02, 1962NA1A, 1962SA1A, 1962TA1E, 1962UL02, 1962VI02, 1963AB1A, 1963BR1B, 1963BU1C, 1963CO12, 1963KU1B, 1964BA1Q, 1964DI1B, 1964EI1A, 1964ER1A, 1964GA1D, 1964GI1B, 1964GI1C, 1964KA1C, 1964LE20, 1964MA1K, 1964MI1E, 1964RI1A, 1964VO1B, 1965BA08, 1965CH1D, 1965EI1A, 1965GI1B, 1965KE06, 1965NA1B, 1965SP1B, 1965VO1A, 1965WA1Q, 1965YO1C, 1965ZA1B, 1966AB1C, 1966BA2F, 1966BE1K, 1966BE1L, 1966BH1B, 1966BO10, 1966BO1P, 1966BR04, 1966BR1R, 1966BR1H, 1966CE06, 1966CO1G, 1966CO1H, 1966DA1F, 1966FE05, 1966GU06, 1966HA31, 1966JA1H, 1966KE1C, 1966KR02, 1966LE1L, 1966LE1M, 1966ME1J, 1966RI1F, 1966SE05, 1966SH1G, 1966SO05, 1966ST08, 1966SV1A, 1966WI1E, 1966WO02, 1966YO1B, 1967AM1G, 1967AR02, 1967BA1K, 1967BA31, 1967BA2D, 1967BE02, 1967BE1V, 1967BL1M, 1967BO1G, 1967BR1E, 1967BR1J, 1967EN01, 1967FE01, 1967FE1D, 1967GI1B, 1967KE1G, 1967KI1B, 1967KR1C, 1967LA1L, 1967MO1J, 1967MU02, 1967MU01, 1967PA10, 1967PA05, 1967PH02, 1967PI1B, 1967RI1B, 1967SA1G, 1967SH1H, 1967ST06, 1967ST1L, 1967SV1A, 1967VA1G, 1967WO1D, 1968AG1E, 1968BA1L, 1968BL01, 1968DE13, 1968GO01, 1968GU1C, 1968HA11, 1968HE1H, 1968KL1D, 1968LA1B, 1968MA01, 1968MA2B, 1968MU1E, 1968PA1T, 1968PE1D, 1968RO1G, 1968TA1R, 1968TA1G, 1968VA1L, 1968VA1N, 1968WA04, 1968WO1A, 1968WO1C, 1968YA1E, 1968ZU02, 1969AB05, 1969AB07, 1969AF02, 1969AG03, 1969BA2Q, 1969BU11, 1969DA1H, 1969DA1J, 1969DE1U, 1969EL05, 1969FU05, 1969GU1E, 1969HU1G, 1969JA10, 1969KA1A, 1969KE1B, 1969KL02, 1969LA1G, 1969LO06, 1969MA38, 1969PE06, 1969PE10, 1969PE1J, 1969PU04, 1969RE1C, 1969SA1F, 1969SA1A, 1969SE04, 1969SU1F, 1969SV1A, 1969UL02, 1969UL03, 1970AR21, 1970BE26, 1970DE24, 1970EL1G, 1970GI11, 1970GO26, 1970GU11, 1970KO04, 1970KR1D, 1970MA28, 1970MC1J, 1970ME1G, 1970NE13, 1970ON1A, 1970PE1A, 1970PE1C, 1970SV1A, 1970TA1A, 1970TE1A, 1970UL1A, 1970VA16, 1970WO12).

Collective model: (1961SA1C, 1962BA1H, 1963BR07, 1963DA1C, 1964BO29, 1964BR1H, 1964SC1G, 1965BO1J, 1965BR1J, 1965FU10, 1965KE06, 1965UB1A, 1965VO1A, 1966BR04, 1966BR1R, 1966BR1Q, 1966CE06, 1966HA1K, 1966LE1J, 1966ST08, 1967BR1E, 1967BR1J, 1967CE1A, 1967FE01, 1967GO23, 1967KR1E, 1967MA1H, 1967PA1M, 1968HO1G, 1968PE1D, 1969AB05, 1969AB07, 1969CU07, 1969DA1J, 1969KA05, 1969KL1E, 1969SE1C, 1969UL02, 1970DE24, 1970TU01).

Cluster and α-particle model: (1958DA1A, 1960RO1C, 1960SH1A, 1961HI09, 1962MA1H, 1962SA1A, 1963BU1C, 1963DA1C, 1963MA1D, 1963MA1E, 1964MA1L, 1964MA1G, 1965BE1H, 1965IN1A, 1965KU1E, 1965NE1C, 1965NE1B, 1966BR1W, 1966BR1U, 1966BR1H, 1966KA1A, 1967TA1C, 1968BE1W, 1968FO1D, 1968PI1A, 1969AB1B, 1969BA2E, 1969CH1K, 1969TA1F, 1970BA2B, 1970BR35, 1970MC1D, 1970NO1B, 1970ON1A, 1971NO03).

Astrophysical questions: (1959CA1B, 1966ST1G, 1969BA71).

Giant resonance (See also reactions 48 and 49.): (1960SA1F, 1961BR1B, 1961FA1A, 1961SA1C, 1962BA1E, 1962BA1H, 1963BA1H, 1964BI1E, 1964EI1A, 1964GA1D, 1964LE1B, 1964MI1E, 1964MI1G, 1964VI1A, 1965DA1D, 1965FU1C, 1965NE1C, 1965SP1B, 1965SP1C, 1965UB1A, 1965YO1C, 1966BA2F, 1966BL1D, 1966DI1D, 1966KL04, 1966LE1J, 1966ME1J, 1966RA1D, 1966WA1K, 1967BE02, 1967BE1V, 1967BU05, 1967GI1B, 1967HI1B, 1967ME1G, 1967MU1D, 1967UB1A, 1967YO04, 1967YO1F, 1968BA1J, 1968DA1M, 1968FR1E, 1968GI1F, 1968MA2B, 1969FU05, 1969KE12, 1969KL02, 1969PE06, 1969SA12, 1969SE1C, 1969SH1C, 1969UB01, 1970FR1E).

Electromagnetic transitions: (1959FA1B, 1959FA1C, 1962BE36, 1962BI12, 1962BI19, 1962MO1A, 1963BO1D, 1963MA1E, 1963PE04, 1964BR1H, 1965CH1D, 1965CO25, 1965EI1A, 1965FU10, 1965GR1H, 1965MA1E, 1965RO1L, 1965ST22, 1966BE1J, 1966GR1J, 1966HA31, 1966RO1P, 1967BA2A, 1967BL1M, 1967GO23, 1967KU1E, 1967YO03, 1968CA08, 1968JA10, 1968MU03, 1968YA1E, 1969AB05, 1969DA1J, 1969HA1F, 1969SE1C, 1969WA1C, 1969WI29, 1970GE12).

Special levels: (1959EG1C, 1960EV1A, 1961BA1F, 1961KA06, 1961TR1B, 1961YO1A, 1962BA1C, 1962BE36, 1962BI12, 1962BI19, 1962IK01, 1962NA1A, 1962VI02, 1963HA05, 1963VI1A, 1964BR1H, 1964CA1D, 1964GA1C, 1964MI16, 1964NA1A, 1964NA1B, 1964SC1G, 1965BO1J, 1965GR1G, 1965HU1C, 1965JO1B, 1965LE1C, 1965NA1B, 1966BA42, 1966BE1L, 1966BO1K, 1966BO1L, 1966CO04, 1966DE18, 1966HA1K, 1966HU13, 1966KA09, 1966LE04, 1966LE1H, 1966ME05, 1966SE05, 1966SO05, 1966TO04, 1966WA1J, 1967AM1G, 1967BO07, 1967DE1Q, 1967KU1J, 1967MA1J, 1968BL01, 1968BO1W, 1968HA06, 1968HA11, 1968JA10, 1968MU03, 1969BU11, 1969GA10, 1969GO1K, 1969HA1G, 1969HA1X, 1969HE12, 1969JA1Q, 1969KR01, 1969PE06, 1969PE10, 1969RO1P, 1969SO1G, 1969ST1J, 1970AR21, 1970DO1J, 1970GA1L, 1970GA1M, 1970ZA01).

Special reactions: (1960IN1B, 1961BA1D, LE63K, 1963SH1B, 1964CH1D, 1964CL1A, 1964ER1A, 1964MC1C, 1965SH11, 1966LE1M, 1967AU1B, 1967CR1F, 1967DE1R, 1967FO1D, 1967GO1A, 1967HI06, 1967PR1D, 1967RI1C, 1968GR1C, 1968WO1B, 1969DA14, 1969MY01, 1969RE1E, 1969TU01, 1970CO1H, 1970RA32).

Muon capture: (1963CO1B, 1964BA1M, 1964BA1N, 1964CO1C, 1964FO1C, 1965DE1K, 1965GI1C, 1965JA1E, 1965UB1A, 1966KI1C, 1966OH1A, 1966WA1K, 1967BA78, 1967BA1Y, 1967BA31, 1967BU1F, 1967DA1D, 1967DE1R, 1967DE1E, 1967FO1C, 1967HI1B, 1967MO1K, 1967RA02, 1967RH1A, 1967RH1B, 1967WA1K, 1968BA2G, 1968FR1E, 1968FU1B, 1968RH1A, 1968WA1L, 1969BU1H, 1969DE1T, 1969GR1E, 1969GR1G, 1969KA1R, 1969VA1A, 1969WU1A, 1970CA1H, 1970CA1J, 1970FR1E, 1970GR1H, 1970PL1A).

Pion capture and reactions: (1966LE1K, 1967DE1R, 1967FO1A, 1967KO1D, 1967ME1F, 1967MI1B, 1967MU1D, 1968BA2G, 1968BA1M, 1968BA48, 1968GU1H, 1968KA1F, 1968KO1C, 1968NO1A, 1968RH1A, 1968TA1C, 1968WI1B, 1968ZU1A, 1969BA1L, 1969BU1C, 1969CH1L, 1969CH1C, 1969ER1C, 1969FU1G, 1969GU1L, 1969KAZY, 1969KE12, 1969KO17, 1969MO1E, 1969MY01, 1969WE05, 1970BA2J, 1970BA44, 1970BE1J, 1970CA1J, 1970CH25, 1970CH1W, 1970EI1C, 1970EL1E, 1970HA46, 1970HO12, 1970KA1J, 1970KO1Q, 1970MA18, 1970TA1C, 1970WE1D).

Other topics: (1959ED1A, 1959GO84, 1960JA1F, 1961RO1D, 1961SW1A, 1962IN1A, 1962LA1D, 1962YU02, 1963BR1D, 1963EV01, 1963HO1E, 1963JO10, 1964BA1L, 1964BR1K, 1964FL1A, 1964LI1B, 1964NA1A, 1964RO1B, 1964VA1D, 1964VO1A, 1964ZU02, 1965HU1D, 1965MA1N, 1965MA36, 1965MA1M, 1965NI1A, 1965RO1K, 1965SI1C, 1966BR1P, 1966ED1B, 1966GI1A, 1966KA09, 1966KO1E, 1966KO1F, 1966MA1U, 1966MI1F, 1966RO1Q, 1966SI1D, 1966SU1D, 1966UL1A, 1966ZH1A, 1967AM1F, 1967BL1N, 1967BR1K, 1967DI1B, 1967EL1E, 1967GR1E, 1967GR1G, 1967HU1B, 1967KA1D, 1967KU13, 1967MA1B, 1967MC09, 1967NI1C, 1967RO1G, 1967RO1H, 1967SC1G, 1967SC16, 1967SH1B, 1968BE1W, 1968CH1F, 1968EL1E, 1968FA1B, 1968GR1J, 1968GU1C, 1968IR1A, 1968IS1A, 1968KO1M, 1968KO1N, 1968LE1F, 1968MC05, 1968MI1E, 1968MO1K, 1968NE1C, 1968PA1U, 1968PA1W, 1968SH08, 1968ST1Q, 1968SU1E, 1968TO1J, 1968WA1K, 1968WI1B, 1969AG03, 1969BA2N, 1969BE1Y, 1969BL1F, 1969FA06, 1969FI1A, 1969GI1B, 1969GR27, 1969GR1H, 1969HA1W, 1969HO1V, 1969IR1A, 1969KA1Q, 1969KH1B, 1969KO1Q, 1969KO14, 1969KO20, 1969LE1L, 1969MC07, 1969ME1H, 1969MI14, 1969NA1E, 1969OS01, 1969PA14, 1969RA21, 1969RU04, 1969SI1D, 1969SO08, 1969ST15, 1970BA2E, 1970BE1Q, 1970BE26, 1970BE1U, 1970BO2A, 1970BR02, 1970DA12, 1970DI1H, 1970DO1J, 1970GM02, 1970KA30, 1970KA1K, 1970KI1F, 1970MC1K, 1970ME1G, 1970MO18, 1970NE09, 1970SC1J, 1970SI02, 1970SP1C, 1970ST1D, 1970SU1B, 1970VO01).

Mass measurement: 15.994 9121 (± 12) amu (1968MA45).

1. 6Li(14N, α)16O Qm = 19.264

The angular distribution of the α-particles corresponding to 16O(0) has been measured at E(14N) = 27.6 MeV (1964WA1B). See also reaction 37.

2. (a) 10B(6Li, p)15N Qm = 18.751 Eb = 30.877
(b) 10B(6Li, d)14N Qm = 10.141
(c) 10B(6Li, t)13N Qm = 5.845
(d) 10B(6Li, 3He)13C Qm = 8.085
(e) 10B(6Li, α)12C Qm = 23.716

At E(6Li) = 4.9 MeV, the cross sections for reactions (a) to (e) leading to low-lying states in the residual nuclei are proportional to (2Jf+1): this is interpreted as indicating that the reactions proceed via a statistical compound nucleus mechanism. For highly excited states, the cross section is higher than would be predicted by a (2Jf+1) dependence (1966MC05). The yield curves for α0 and α1 (reaction (e)) measured at 0° for E(6Li) = 3.2 to 13.6 MeV show broad structures. At 90°, for E(6Li) = 9.7 to 13.0 MeV no structure is apparent, suggesting that the 0° yield is explainable in terms of Ericson fluctuations (1967SE08). See also (1963MO1B, 1964GA1E, 1967CA1D, 1970GI05).

3. 10B(14N, 8Be)16O Qm = 14.708

τm for 16O*(6.13) = 21+1-7 psec. The ground state E3 transition has a strength of 62 W.u. (1969NI09).

4. 11B(7Li, 2n)16O Qm = 12.169

τm for 16O*(8.88) = 0.37 ± 0.13 psec. The transition energy for 8.88 → 6.13 is 2740.4 ± 1.0 keV (1969TH01).

5. 12C(α, γ)16O Qm = 7.161

The yield of capture γ-rays has been studied for Eα < 23.5 MeV: see Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS). The cross section rises from (1.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3 μb at Eα = 1.86 MeV to (29 ± 4) × 10-3 μb at Eα = 3.11 MeV. At Eα = 1.6 MeV, the capture cross section is < 0.3 × 10-3 μb (1970JA09). At higher energies resonances are observed. These are displayed in Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) (1960ME02, 1964LA16, 1965MI05, 1967SU02). Widths for γ-emission have been measured for several of the corresponding 16O states: see Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) (1963GO31, 1964LA16, 1966GO18, 1967GO08, 1967SU02). See also (1969BR1L) and (1967GI1C, 1969GI1B; theor.). The asymmetries in the angular distributions in this reaction and in the inverse reaction 16O(γ, α)12C are the same within one standard deviation: there is no evidence for failure of time reversal invariance (1970VO13). The relevance of this reaction to the buildup of elements in stars is discussed by (1967ST1M, 1967WI1B, 1970TO1C, 1970WE1A, 1970WE1F) and in earlier papers listed in (1959AJ76).

6. 12C(α, n)15O Qm = -8.507 Eb = 7.161

Cross section measurements have been made from threshold to Eα = 24.7 MeV: see Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) (1963NE05, 1968BL08, 1970BE1T). See also (1962GO1J, 1963GO1J, 1965AL1J, 1965TS1A) and (1963KE1A; theor.). See also 15O in (1970AJ04).

7. 12C(α, p)15N Qm = -4.965 Eb = 7.161

The yield of protons corresponding to the ground state of 15N has been studied for Eα = 7.7 to 23 MeV: see Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) (1960PR13, 1964AT02, 1964CA07, 1965MI05, 1968MO1H, 1970BE1T, 1970NE1H). See also (1963KE1A; theor.) and 15N in (1970AJ04).

8. 12C(α, d)14N Qm = -13.575 Eb = 7.161

See 14N in (1970AJ04). See also (1968NO1C; theor.).

9. 12C(α, α)12C Eb = 7.161

The yield of α-particles corresponding to 12C*(0, 4.4) and of 4.4 MeV γ-rays has been studied at many energies in the range Eα = 2.5 to 35.5 MeV: see Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) (1953HI05, 1954BI96, 1955RA1B, 1961MI03, 1962JO09, 1962JO14, 1964CA07, 1964LA16, 1964MI08, 1964MI12, 1965MI05, 1966LA09, 1967LA1J, 1968AG03, 1968CL04, 1968MO08, 1968MO1H, 1969AG06, 1970HA15, 1970NE1H, 1970OP01). See also (1961FE02 and private communication, 1966BO28).

In a study of the yield of α0 and α1 for Eα = 18.9 to 30.1 MeV, (1970MO06) find that the cross section for the α1 group is in general greater than that for the α0 group [see also (1964MI08)]. Resent phase-shift analyses are reported by (1968CA11, 1969CL08, 1970MO06). The inclusion of the bound level of 16O* at 7.12 MeV produces an improved fit to the low-energy p-wave phase shift data and leads to θ2α for 16O*(7.12) = 0.71+0.37-0.18 (1969CL08). The energy dependence of the α1 - γ4.4 angular correlation has been studied for Eα = 18 to 24 MeV by (1968KL07).

Astrophysical considerations are discussed by (1970MO22).

The non-elastic cross section at Eα = 40 MeV has been measured by (1963IG01, 1963WI1D). Polarization measurements have been made at Eα = 22.5 MeV by (1964EI01) and at Eα = 22.75 MeV by (1970HA15). At the higher energy the cross section is free of resonance structure (1970HA15). Spallation studies are reported by (1968JA1J, 1968JU04, 1969JU03, 1970BA48, 1970JA1Q, 1970JU05, 1970RA30, 1970SC1F).

See also (1963DA1D, 1969BR1D), (1965BE16, 1966CE1E, 1967GR1F, 1968SH1G, 1969PI02; theor.), 12C in (1968AJ02) and (1959AJ76).

10. 12C(α, 8Be)8Be Qm = -7.464 Eb = 7.161

The yield of 8Be shows a number of resonances for Eα = 11.85 to 19.4 MeV, some of which are attributed to rotational states of 16O: see Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS). Jπ assignments were made from angular distribution studies (1967CH21). Levels seen in this reaction are attributed by (1967AB02, 1967AB04) to a rotational band generated by an axially symmetric 8p - 8h state.

11. 12C(6Li, d)16O Qm = 5.689

At E(6Li) = 20 and 29 MeV and at E(12C) = 18 to 24 MeV, deuteron groups are observed to many of the states with Ex ≤ 16.2 MeV (1967LO01, 1968ME10, 1970CO26). The spectrum at E(6Li) = 20 MeV is dominated by the groups corresponding to 16O*(10.34, 14.8, 16.2) with Jπ = 4+, 6+ and 6+, respectively (1967BE24, 1968ME10, 1970CO26). In addition, the excitation of a state at Ex ≈ 20.8 MeV (Γ ≈ 600 keV) is reported by (1970CO26): it may be the 8+ member of the first even parity rotational band in 16O, which is believed to have a predominantly 4p - 4h character (1970CO26). See also (1969GO19). Measured angular distributions are listed in Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS). (1967LO01) have analyzed their data to obtain θ2α for all 16O states with Ex < 10.4 MeV. See also (1960SH01, 1963OL1A, 1967CA1D, 1967DZ01, 1968OG1A, 1969CO1D, 1969GI1B, 1970OG1A), (1968RO1D, 1970DO07; theor.) and 18F in (1972AJ02).

12. 12C(7Li, t)16O Qm = 4.694

At E(7Li) = 15 to 31.5 MeV, triton groups are observed to many of the states with Ex ≤ 16.2 MeV (1969GI1B, 1969GO19, 1970CO26, 1970PU01). As in 12C(6Li, d)16O, the spectra are dominated by groups corresponding to the 4+ and 6+ states at 16O*(10.34, 14.8, 16.2) and by 16O*(20.8). Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS) lists the measured angular distributions. From these distributions and the weak excitation of 16O*(8.87) it is concluded that the reaction proceeds predominantly by a direct α-transfer (1970PU01). See also (1963OL1A, 1967CH34, 1967OG1A, 1968DA20, 1968OG1A, 1970OG1A), (1969DA14, 1970DO07, 1970DU1E; theor.) and 19F in (1972AJ02).

13. (a) 12C(10B, 6Li)16O Qm = 2.700
(b) 12C(11B, 7Li)16O Qm = -1.503
(c) 12C(12C, 2α)16O Qm = -0.113

For reaction (a), see (1970JA1B, 1970VO1F). For reaction (b), see (1970JA1B). For reaction (c), see (1959AL1H, 1968JA1F, 1970JA1B) and 20Ne in (1972AJ02).

14. 12C(14N, 10B)16O Qm = -4.452

See (1967BI1F, 1969BR1D).

15. (a) 12C(16O, 12C)16O
(b) 12C(18O, 14C)16O Qm = 0.934

For reaction (a) see (1968VO1A). See also (1967AB1D, 1970CL1E, 1970HE1E, 1970JA1B, 1970VO1F; theor.). For reaction (b) see (1969BR1D, 1969SU1E, 1970BA1J).

16. 12C(19F, 15N)16O Qm = 3.150

See (1967BO1P, 1969VO1D, 1970VO1F).

17. 12C(20Ne, 16O)16O Qm = 2.432

See (1970JA1B).

18. 13C(3He, γ)16O Qm = 22.793

The yield of ground state γ-rays for E(3He) = 1.0 to 3.5 MeV shows two strong resonances corresponding to 16O*(24.1, 25.1) [see Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS)] (1966PU01). See also (1970MO1A).

19. 13C(3He, n)15O Qm = 7.125 Eb = 22.793

The excitation functions (see Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS)) are marked at low energies by complex structures, and possibly by two resonances at E(3He) = 1.55 and 2.0 MeV (see Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS)) (1963DE02, 1965DI07). For E(3He) = 7.5 to 11 MeV, the n0 curve is rather featureless (1964DE1C). Polarization measurements are reported by (1968ST19: 3.0 to 3.9 MeV; n0) and by (1969DE1R, 1969DE1Q: 4.2 to 5.7 MeV; n0). See also (1961JO07, 1964DI1C). See (1969BA1N) for a discussion of astrophysical implications. See also 15O in (1970AJ04).

20. 13C(3He, p)15N Qm = 10.667 Eb = 22.793

The yield curves for p0 and p1+2 (see Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS)) show a resonance corresponding to 16O*(27.6) (1968WE15). See also (1970ST1M) and 15N in (1970AJ04).

21. 13C(3He, 3He)13C Eb = 22.793

See (1967WE06, 1968WE15) and Tables 16.14 (in PDF or PS) and 16.15 (in PDF or PS).

22. 13C(3He, α)12C Qm = 15.631 Eb = 22.793

Yields of α0, α1, α2 and γ-rays from the decay of 12C*(12.71, 15.11) have been studied at many energies: see Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS): those seen in the yield of 15.1 MeV γ-rays are assumed to correspond to 16O states which have primarily a T = 1 character since 12C*(15.11) has T = 1 (1964KU09, 1968MO1J, 1968WE15, 1968WE13, 1968WE1C, 1969TA09). See also (1968WE1F) and 12C in (1968AJ02).

23. 13C(3He, 8Be)8Be Qm = 8.168 Eb = 22.793

The excitation function for 8Beg.s. has been studied for E(3He) = 2 to 6 MeV. It shows a strong resonance at E(3He) = 5.6 MeV corresponding to a state in 16O at Ex = 27.3 MeV. Jπ appears to be 2+ from angular distribution measurements. 16O*(27.3) does not belong to the rotational band studied by (1967CH21) in 12C(α, 8Be)8Be: Jπ for such a rotational state at Ex = 27 MeV would have to be 14+. The off-resonance cross section is comparable to typical cross sections observed in the (3He, α) process (1968JA07).

24. 13C(α, n)16O Qm = 2.215

A threshold for 16O*(6.05) is observed at Eα = 5.05 MeV (1956BO61). The angular distributions of neutrons corresponding to the ground state have been measured for Eα = 12.8 to 14.1 MeV (1962NI04), 17.4 to 22.5 MeV (1963DE27, 1965DE1F). See also (1961DE08, 1963WE1C), (1959CA1A, 1959MD1A, 1964KE1C, 1964MC1B; theor.) and 17O.

25. 13C(6Li, t)16O Qm = 7.000

At E(6Li) = 20 MeV, triton groups corresponding to 16O states with Ex < 16.9 MeV have been observed. Angular distributions have been obtained for 16O*(6.13, 6.92, 7.12, 8.87, 9.85, 10.34, 11.10). The triton groups corresponding to 16O*(11.09) dominate the spectra; 16O*(14.4, 14.8) were also strongly excited (1969BA50). See also (1969GI1B, 1970OG1A).

26. 13C(12C, 9Be)16O Qm = -3.489

See (1969GI1B, 1970JA1B).

27. 14C(3He, n)16O Qm = 14.616

At E(3He) = 11 to 16 MeV, neutron groups are observed to T = 2 states at Ex = 22.717 ± 0.008 and 24.522 ± 0.011 MeV (Γ < 30 keV and < 50 keV, respectively). These two states are presumably the first two T = 2 states in 16O, the analog states to 16C*(0, 1.75). Jπ for 16O*(24.52) is found to be 2+ from angular distribution measurements (1970AD01). Angular distributions are also reported at 2.1 to 3.4 MeV (1961JO24; n0) and at 6 MeV (1970HO08; n0, n1+2, n3+4). See also (1969BA1Z) and 17O.

28. 14N(d, γ)16O Qm = 20.736

The γ0 yield has been studied for Ed = 0.5 to 5.5 MeV. The yield shows a resonance at Ed = 2.2 MeV corresponding to a state in 16O at Ex = 22.7 MeV, formed with a cross section of ≈ 6 μb. The angular distribution of γ0 at resonance is on the whole consistent with E1. Structure at Ex = 22.2 and 24.5 MeV is also reported (1966SU05, 1966SU1C). See also (1961SU17, 1963SU09). (1969GI1B) attributes the 2.2 MeV resonance to a 2p - 2h 1-; T = 1 state whose formation is possible because of polarization of the deuteron and isospin impurity. See also Tables 16.16 (in PDF or PS) and 16.17 (in PDF or PS) and (1967GI1C, 1969MA1N, 1969RA1F, 1969WE1H; theor.).

29. 14N(d, n)15O Qm = 5.068 Eb = 20.736

For Ed = 0.66 to 5.62 MeV, there is a great deal of resonance structure in the excitation curves with the anomalies appearing at different energies at different angles (1960RE07): see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS) for a summary of recent yield and polarization experiments. Angular distributions have been measured at many energies: see Table 15.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1970AJ04). The more prominent structures in the yield curves are displayed in Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS) (1960RE07, 1965BU1A, 1965JA1F). See also (1958WE1C, 1960EL04, 1960MO18), and (1959AJ76).

30. 14N(d, p)15N Qm = 8.610 Eb = 20.736

Quite a lot of structure is observed in the yield curves of various proton groups for Ep = 0.5 to 5.5 MeV: see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS) for a summary of recent yield and polarization measurements, and (1961SJ1B, 1962GO21, 1967BO37, 1969GO14) for data showing the fluctuations. Angular distributions have been obtained at many energies: see Table 15.16 (in PDF or PS) in (1970AJ04). Resonant structure reported by (1962GO21, 1970NE1H), is displayed in Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS). See also (1961JO13) and (1959AJ76).

31. 14N(d, d)14N Eb = 20.736

The yield of elastically scattered deuterons has been studied for Ed = 0.65 to 5.5 MeV: see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions for various deuteron groups have been measured at many energies: see Table 14.23 (in PDF or PS) in (1970AJ04) and (1967FL10, 1970DU04). (1967FL10) report a number of resonances in the d0 yield corresponding to states in 16O with 22.6 ≤ Ex ≤ 25.2 MeV. There is indication of broad structure at Ed = 5.9 MeV and of sharp structure at Ed = 7.7 MeV in the total cross section of the d1 group to the T = 1 (isospin-forbidden), Jπ = 0+ state at Ex = 2.31 MeV in 14N. The yield of deuterons (d2) to 14N*(3.95) [Jπ = 1+; T = 0] shows gross structures at Ex = 7.4 and 10.2 MeV (1970DU04). The d1 resonance at Ed = 5.9 MeV is also reported in the (isospin-forbidden) yield of 15.11 MeV γ-rays to the 1+; T = 1 state of 12C: see reaction 33. For a display of the information on reported resonances, see Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS). See also (1968NO1C; theor.).

32. 14N(d, t)13N Qm = -4.296 Eb = 20.736

See 13N in (1970AJ04).

33. 14N(d, α)12C Qm = 13.575 Eb = 20.736

A great deal of structure is observed in the yields of various α-particle groups for Ed = 0.5 to 12 MeV. Recent measurements are summarized in Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS). The more prominent structures in the yields of α0, α1, α2 and α3 are displayed in Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS) (1961IS03, 1962AL09, 1962IS02, 1967LA16, 1970NE1H). See also (1964CH1B, 1964CH1C, 1964MA53, 1965SC12, 1967BO37, 1969GO14) for other fluctuation data. The yield of 15.11 MeV γ-rays [from the decay of 12C*(15.11), Jπ = 1+; T = 1] which is isospin-forbidden has been studied for Ed = 2.8 to 12 MeV. Pronounced resonances are observed at Ed = 4.2, 4.58 and 5.95 MeV and broader peaks occur at Ed = 7.1 and, possibly, at 8.5 MeV (see Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS)). Above Ed = 9.5 MeV, the yield curve is quite featureless (1965BR08). Angular distributions have been measured at many energies between Ed = 0.5 and 28.5 MeV: see 12C in (1968AJ02). See also (1959FI30, 1961JO13, 1965ST02).

34. (a) 14N(t, n)16O Qm = 14.479
(b) 14N(t, np)15N Qm = 2.353
(c) 14N(t, nα)12C Qm = 7.318

At Et = 2.2 to 2.6 MeV, the two-stage reaction (b) proceeds via 16O*(14.94, 16.22) (1961JA14) while reaction (c) proceeds via 16O*(13.10, 15.42) (1962SI04).

35. (a) 14N(3He, p)16O Qm = 15.243
(b) 14N(3He, pα)12C Qm = 8.081

At E(3He) = 3.7, 4.0 and 13.0 MeV, high-resolution spectral studies have led to Ex and Γ determinations for 33 excited states of 16O with Ex < 21.1 MeV: see Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS) (1964BR08, 1968CO1R, 1968CO1T). The separation of 16O*(6.05, 6.13), is 81.0 ± 1.0 keV (C.P. Browne, private communication). The states with Ex > 15 MeV are believed to have T = 1 (1968CO1T). Angular distributions have been measured at E(3He) = 2.5 to 5.5 MeV (1963GO09; p0), 4.5 and 5.5 MeV (1963GO09; p1+2, p5), 8.0 to 10.6 MeV (1962BI01) and 13.0 MeV (1968CO1T: see Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS)).

The branching ratios of 16O*(8.87, 10.95, 11.08) are listed in Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) (1959BR68, BE69W). These, as well as p - γ angular correlation measurements, lead to the assignments Jπ = 2-, 0- and 3+, respectively for 16O*(8.87, 10.95, 11.08) (1959BR68, 1959KU78). The mean lifetimes for these states are displayed in Table 16.19 (in PDF or PS) (1968HE1K, 1969FI02, 1970BE27, 1970FI06).

At E(3He) = 8 MeV, a study of the protons in coincidence with 4.4 MeV γ-rays (reaction (b)) indicates that the reaction proceeds via 16O states with Ex = 12.51, 13.97, 14.39, 14.92, 15.82, 16.23, 17.16, 17.82, 18.04 MeV (± 40 keV) (1969HO13).

See also (1962CL02, 1964GO1F, 1965BA1Q, 1966BA55, 1967BA1E).

36. (a) 14N(α, d)16O Qm = -3.111
(b) 14N(α, dα)12C Qm = -10.272

The excitation of a number of 16O states with Ex < 17.2 MeV has been reported at Eα = 40 to 48 MeV by (1962CE01, 1962HA40, 1966RI04, 1970ZI03). In particular strong deuteron groups are reported to states with Ex = 14.40 ± 0.03, 14.82 ± 0.03, 15.80 ± 0.04, 16.24 ± 0.04 and 17.17 ± 0.04 MeV, with Γc.m. = 30 ± 30, 69 ± 30, (60), 125 ± 50 and (70) keV, respectively (1970ZI03). Angular distributions of the deuteron groups corresponding to 16O*(14.39, 14.82, 16.23) have been measured at Eα = 40 and 42 MeV. A T = 0 state at Ex ≈ 13.1 MeV is also reported (1966RI04); see, however, (1970ZI03). See also (1962CE01, 1962HA40). Angular distributions are also reported by (1959ZE1A: 43 MeV; d0) and (1962CE01: 48 MeV; d0, d1+2, d5).

An experiment to test time-reversal invariance by the principle of detailed balance in this reaction and in the reaction 16O(d, α)14N [see 14N in (1970AJ04)] shows that detailed balance is satisfied to ± 0.5% (1967TH1E, 1968TH1J).

The two-stage reaction (reaction (b)) at Eα = 22.9 MeV appears to proceed via 16O states at Ex = 9.85 ± 0.07, 10.37 ± 0.07 and 11.14 ± 0.07 MeV (1968KU1C, 1969BA17). See also (1969BR1D) and (1963GL1C, 1965GR1F; theor.).

37. 14N(6Li, α)16O Qm = 19.264

Angular distributions of the α-particles to 16O*(0, 6.05 + 6.13, 6.92 + 7.12) have been determined at E(6Li) = 5.3 to 6.0 MeV (1968RI13). See also reaction 1.

38. 14N(11B, 9Be)16O Qm = 4.918

See (1966PO1E, 1967PO1E, 1967VO1A).

39. 15N(p, γ)16O Qm = 12.126

The yield of ground state radiation (γ0) has been measured for Ep = 0.17 to 18 MeV: see Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS) for a summary of the measurements and Table 16.21 (in PDF or PS) for a display of the observed resonances. Angular distributions of the γ0 radiation have been measured at many energies. The cross section shows a great deal of structure in quite good agreement with the results of high-resolution studies of 16O(γ, n)15O and 16O(e, ep)15N (see reactions 48 and 55). The excitation energies corresponding to the most pronounced resonances are in good agreement with the predictions of the shell model (1964TA06). Above Ep = 8 MeV, the angular distributions indicate the presence of a very broad 2+ state (Ex ≈ 30 MeV, Γ ≈ 5 MeV), and imply the presence of a similarly broad 1- state. In addition a number of weak 1- states with Γ ≈ 0.5 MeV appear to be present (1967EA02). The main part of the giant resonance at Ex ≈ 22.2 MeV [Ep = 10.7 MeV] shows some structure (1967BL23). (1970BA33) suggest that 16O*(19.90, 20.39), observed in the (γ1 + γ2) yield, are 2+ states from the coupling of the 1- states at 12.44 and 13.10 MeV to the 3- state at 6.13 MeV. Above Ep = 14 MeV, no pronounced structures are observed but there is some evidence for weak structures corresponding to Ex ≈ 25.5 and 26.4 MeV (1967BL23).

Branching ratios and Γγ values for the low-energy resonances are listed in Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) (1963GO22, 1968GO07, 1968WI15, 1969BR1L). See also (1966GO1H). It appears that one needs to introduce 3p - 3h admixtures into the T = 0 states and probably into those of T = 1 (1968WI15). An analysis of (p, γ) structure in terms of the theory of statistical fluctuations and a comparison with direct radiative capture calculations have been made by (1965TA1E). See also (1959TA1A, 1961WE01, 1962RI08), (1962WA1C, 1967TA1D) and (1965MA1H, 1966LE1M, 1967BU05, 1967KO1H, 1969SA12, 1969WE1H; theor.). See also (1959AJ76).

40. 15N(p, p)15N Eb = 12.126

Elastic scattering studies are reported for Ep = 0.6 to 11.7 MeV (see Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS)): observed anomalies are shown in Table 16.21 (in PDF or PS) (see also (1962DE09)). The inelastic scattering of protons has also been studied for Ep = 9 to 11.7 MeV (p1+2) and 10.3 to 11.5 MeV (p3). In addition to other structures, a strong resonance in the (p1+2) scattering occurs at Ep ≈ 10.0 MeV (1969DR1C). See also (1966WA1L) and (1959AJ76).

41. 15N(p, n)15O Qm = -3.542 Eb = 12.126

The absolute total cross section has been measured with excellent resolution and statistics for Ep = 3.8 to 12 MeV by (1968BA42): observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.22 (in PDF or PS). (1968BA42) also discusses in detail the relationship of his results and the data reported in other experiments, including a comparison with analog states in 16N [see Fig. 5]. Excitation functions have also been reported from threshold to 13.6 MeV: see Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured at many energies: see 15O in (1970AJ04). Polarization measurements have been made for the n0 group from Ep = 7.9 to 12.3 MeV (1964WA1G, 1965WA02). (1969BA1N) discuss the astrophysical implications of this reaction. See also (1961SA01) and (1966WA1L, 1967KA1E, 1968HA15, 1968KA1G, 1969HA1J, 1969PE1J; theor.).

42. (a) 15N(p, α)12C Qm = 4.965 Eb = 12.126
(b) 15N(p, t)13N Qm = -12.906
(c) 15N(p, 3He)13C Qm = -10.667

Excitation functions for α0 and α1 particles (corresponding to 12C*(0, 4.43)) and of 4.43 MeV γ-rays have been measured for Ep = 0.2 to 15.2 MeV: see Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS). Several resonances are reported for Ep < 3.5 MeV (1952SC28, 1957HG01, 1959BA15, 1959VA04, 1960HE02, 1964BO13, 1966AD04, 1968GO07, 1969CL07): see Table 16.21 (in PDF or PS), and see also (1959AJ76). At higher energies, there is continuing structure in the yield curves, which is interpreted in terms of fluctuations: see (1962RO04, 1963RO01, 1967NO02) and (1964TE1D, 1964TE1E, 1964TE1F). Angular distributions have been obtained at many energies: see 12C in (1968AJ02). Angular correlation measurements lead to Jπ = 2-, 1-, 3-, and 1+, respectively for the resonances at Ep = 0.898, 1.08, 1.21, and 1.64 (1969CL07). For polarization measurements see (1966AD04). See also (1963MI1C, 1964EC03, 1969BR1L), (1963MI1H), Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) and (1965MA1H; theor.).

Polarization measurements of tritons and 3He particles (reactions (b) and (c)) at Ep = 43.8 MeV are reported by (1970HA23): some of the transitions exhibit asymmetries at variance with DWBA predictions (1970HA23).

43. 15N(d, n)16O Qm = 9.901

Neutron groups corresponding to many of the 16O states with Ex < 13.3 MeV have been observed: see Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions are reported at Ed = 1.0 MeV (1967CO1R; n0, n1+2, n3+4, n5), 1.1 to 5.2 MeV (1958WE31; n0), 1.8 and 3.0 MeV (1967CO1R; n0), 2.5 to 3.0 MeV (1963FE01, 1963FE1B; n0, n2 → n5), 5 and 6 MeV (1970MU1H: see Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS)), and 6 MeV (1967FU07; n0, n2 → n5); l-values are displayed in Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS). The angular distribution of the n3 group (to 16O*(6.92)) does not show a stripping pattern.

Slow neutron thresholds have been observed at Ed = 1.192 and 1.335 MeV corresponding to 16O* = 10.952 ± 0.010 and 11.078 ± 0.015 MeV (1957WE1A, 1958WE1C). The 10.94 MeV state is observed to decay only to 16O*(7.12), Jπ = 1-. This suggests Jπ = 0- for 16O*(10.94), an assignment strongly favored also by the γ - γ correlation (1957BE61): see also Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS).

See also (1962LE1A; theor.) and 17O.

44. 15N(3He, d)16O Qm = 6.632

Angular distributions of the deuterons corresponding to a number of states of 16O have been measured at E(3He) = 11 MeV (1969BO13) and at E(3He) = 16.0 and 24.9 MeV (1969FU08): l and S values derived from DWBA analyses are shown in Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS). See also (1963PA01, 1965SE01, 1968SE1C, 1969FU1J).

45. 15N(α, t)16O Qm = -7.688

Not reported.

46. 15N(11B, 10Be)16O Qm = 0.898

See (1967PO13, 1969BR1D).

47. 16N(β-)16O Qm = 10.422

16N decays to seven states of 16O: reported branching fractions are listed in Table 16.24 (in PDF or PS). The ground state transition has the unique first-forbidden shape corresponding to ΔJ = 2, yes, fixing Jπ of 16N as 2-. This assignment is also indicated by the fact that the transitions to 16O*(6.13, 7.12) are both allowed (see (1959AJ76)).

A 1% allowed branch leads to 16O*(8.88): Jπ is then 1-, 2- or 3-. The α-decay from this state has been reported: Γα = (1.8 ± 0.8) × 10-10 eV; Eα = 1278 ± 10 keV (1970HA42). The γ-branching and γ - γ correlation (8.88 → 6.13 → g.s.) are consistent with the assignment Jπ = 2- (1956WI1A). See also (1961KA06, 1961SE01, 1969HA42). The α-decays of 16O*(9.59, 9.85) have been observed: see (1961KA06, 1961SE01, 1969HA42). See (1969GA10) for a discussion of parity-forbidden alpha decays of 16O levels.

Recently reported transition energies derived from γ-ray measurements are: Ex = 6130.96 ± 0.28 and 7118.72 ± 0.49 keV [Eγ = 6129.70 ± 0.28 and 7117.02 ± 0.49 keV] (1967CH19) and 6129.6 ± 0.4 keV (1968SP01). Eγ = 6128.9 ± 0.4 keV (1966GR18). ΔEx for 16O*(7.12, 6.13) = 987 ± 3 keV (1965CR01). See also (1959PR73, 1963AL18, 1964AL22) and (1960ZI1B, 1963SO04, 1964NA1C, 1966CO1H, 1966LA1J, 1968JA10, 1969HE1R, 1969WA1C, 1970MC1J, 1971TO08).).

48. (a) 16O(γ, n)15O Qm = -15.668
(b) 16O(γ, 2n)14O Qm = -28.887

Recent papers reviewing this reaction are (1963HA1E, 1964BI1E, 1966FU1C, 1966HA1M, 1966ME1H, 1966MI04, 1967DO1A, 1967FU1G, 1967MI15, 1967SH1E, 1968GI1F, 1968SC1B).

The absorption cross section and the (γ, n) cross section are marked by a number of resonances. The reported structure is displayed in Table 16.25 (in PDF or PS) (1962BU23, 1962FI04, 1963BU18, 1963FU05, 1963GE13, 1964BR03, 1964TE04, 1965CA14, 1965DO05, 1966CO08, 1967DO1A, 1967MI15, 1970IV01). There are still conflicting reports on which structures are real [there are relatively few results obtained with monochromatic γ-rays] and on their widths, when these are given. For curves of the (γ, n) cross section obtained with monochromatic γ-rays, see, e.g., (1965CA14, 1966MI04). For other reports of cross sectionmeasurements see (1960CA09, 1961BR28, 1962BI09, 1962BR16, 1962DE03, 1962MI07, 1964DE1D, 1965HA19, 1965VE03, 1965WY02, 1968WU01, 1969BE92, 1969KH01, 1969NA1D, 1969NA23, 1970JU02).

The splitting of the giant resonance peak is ascribed by (1967GI1B) to the existence of a 2p - 2h coherent quasi-bound state lying in the dip of the photoabsorption cross section.

Branching ratios for the decays of 16O in the giant resonance region to various excited states in 15O have been reported by many groups: see reaction 22 in 15O (1970AJ04). The cross section is reported to display a maximum at 23.5 MeV for emission of neutrons to 15O*(6.18) [Jπ = 3/2-] (1966MA1T). See (1970HO21). See also (1964TA1C, 1965WI03, 1967CA1C, 1967CA1P, 1967FU1G, 1969MU07).

Polarization measurements are reported by (1964HA1F, 1967HA1N, 1967HA1P, 1968WU01, 1969CO15). See also (1959CA1C, 1959MI89, 1959MI95, 1959PE21, 1959PE24, 1959PE32, 1959SA08, 1960SA01, 1960WY1A, 1960ZI01, 1961FI04, 1961KE02, 1961RO1C, 1962BO1D, 1962FU11, 1962GO1E, 1962GO27, 1963AN02, 1963CA12, 1963GR1F, 1963GR35, 1964BE1E, 1964YE02, 1965GR1K, 1965MA45, 1966BA56, 1966FI1C, 1966KA1C, 1966MA1T, 1967FI1E, 1967FO1D, 1967GL1B, 1968BA2L, 1968CO1Q, 1968KA38, 1969HO1T, 1970CO1Q, 1970HE19, 1970ST1E; exp.), (1962RE1A, 1963FE1C, 1963GR1D, 1964EI1A, 1964FU1B, 1965WE06, 1966GI1B, 1966ME1J, 1966RA1E, 1967BA2C, 1967BU05, 1967DU1C, 1967FU02, 1967GI1C, 1967KA1E, 1967LE1H, 1967RA1D, 1968ER1B, 1968KA1G, 1969ER1A, 1969FU05, 1969MA35, 1969PE06, 1969PE1J, 1969RA1F, 1969SA12, 1969SE1C, 1969UB01, 1969UN05, 1969VA1A, 1969WA1G, 1969WE1H, 1970MU1D; theor.), (1959AJ76) and "Giant resonance" in the "GENERAL" section here. For reaction (b), see (1962BR16, 1968ME23).

49. 16O(γ, p)15N Qm = -12.126

Resonances in the yield of ground state protons have been observed at 20.89, 22.20, 23.03, 24.23, 24.99, (25.42), 26.37 and 31.15 MeV using bremsstrahlung radiation (1969BA39, 1969FR20). See also (1963FI1B, 1968ST11). Angular distribution coefficients show strong correlation with the structure in the cross section. It is predominantly d-wave protons from the 1- states of 16O which are emitted, although some s-wave emission is required by the data (1969FR20). (1969BA39) report that, in the region between 20 and 30 MeV, there is interference from the E2, p-wave proton channel, and possibly also from an M1 absorption channel. The peak interfering amplitude is > 10% of the corresponding E1 amplitude (1969BA39). ∫3021 σdE = 37 MeV · mb (1969BA39). See also (1967TH04).

Branching ratios for the decays of 16O states in the giant resonance region to various excited states in 15N have been reported by many groups: see reaction 55 in 15N (1970AJ04) and (1970HO21).

For a calculation of the (γ, p) cross section from the 15N(p, γ)16O cross section (reaction 39) using the principle of detailed balance, see (1967BL23).

Recent papers reviewing the evidence on this reaction are (1963HA1E, 1966FU1C, 1966HA1M, 1966ME1H, 1967FU1G, 1967SH1E, 1968SC1B).

See also (1957JO20, 1959BR69, 1959PE32, 1961DO08, 1961HE06, 1961SH18, 1962GO1E, 1962GO27, 1965DE24, 1965MA45, 1965MO13, 1965ST1C, 1966KO1G, 1966MA1T, 1967CA1C, 1967CA1P, 1967FU1G, 1967MO1L, 1967TU04, 1968BA2L, 1968DE07, 1969HO1T, 1969MU07, 1969SH02, 1969ST11; exp.), (1964FU1B, 1966RA1E, 1966WA1L, 1967BA2C, 1967BU05, 1967KA1E, 1967RA1D, 1968ER1B, 1968KA1G, 1969MA35, 1969PE06, 1969PE1J, 1969SA12, 1969UB01, 1969UN05, 1969VA1A, 1970MU1D; theor.) and (1959AJ76).

50. (a) 16O(γ, d)14N Qm = -20.736
(b) 16O(γ, pn)14N Qm = -22.961
(c) 16O(γ, dn)13N Qm = -31.289
(d) 16O(γ, dp)13C Qm = -28.286

For reactions (a) see (1966FU1C) and (1962MA1F, 1963BA1K, 1965OS1A; theor.). For reaction (b) see (1962MI07, 1965GA1E) and (1963KO1B; theor.). For reactions (c) and (d), see (1962KO19).

51. 16O(γ, α)12C Qm = -7.161

The cross section for production of 12C exhibits a maximum near 17.5 MeV (Γ ≈ 5 MeV), σ(max) ≈ 50 μb (1953MI31). See also reaction 5 (1970VO13), (1959AJ76), (1957JO20, 1962GO1E, 1964GR08, 1964TO1B, 1965RO05, 1965RO1J, 1967CA1C) and (1968ER1B, 1969MA1N; theor.).

52. 16O(γ, 4α) Qm = -14.436

See (1959AJ76) and (1958MA1A, 1962GO1E,, 1964GR08, 1964TO1B, 1965RO1J).

53. (a) 16O(γ, t)13N Qm = -25.032
(b) 16O(γ, breakup)

For reaction (a) see (1962BI09, 1965BU1F, 1966GO1F, 1967KR05). For reaction (b), resulting in multi-particle breakup, see (1958MA1A, 1962BI09, 1962GO1E, 1962MO16, 1963CO1D, 1965SA1F, 1966AR01, 1967FE05, 1967KR05).

54. 16O(γ, γ')16O*

The differential scattering cross section has been measured for Eγ = 18.5 to 33 MeV: the main giant resonance peaks are located at ≈ 22 and ≈ 25 MeV (1967LO1B). (1970AH02) report resonances at Eγ = 22.5 ± 0.3, 25.2 ± 0.3, 31.8 ± 0.6 and 50 ± 3 MeV: the dipole sum up to 80 MeV exceeds the classical value 60 NZ/A MeV · mb by a factor 1.4. See also (1959PE32, 1960RE05, 1962SE02). For lifetime measurements of 16O*(6.9, 7.1), see Table 16.19 (in PDF or PS) (1957SW17, 1958DU06); for widths, see Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) (1970SW03). The separation between the (7.12) and (6.92) γ-lines is 199.8 ± 0.5 keV (1970SW03). Based on 7118.67 ± 0.35 keV (Table 16.9 (in PDF or PS)), Ex for the lower state is 6918.9 ± 0.6 keV. See also (1962BA58, 1968SI1A; theor.).

55. (a) 16O(e, e')16O*
(b) 16O(e, ep)15N Qm = -12.126

The 16O charge radius, rrms = 2.65 ± 0.04 fm (1966CR07), 2.674 ± 0.022 (using a distorted wave approximation), 2.712 ± 0.022 fm (using a Born approximation) (1970SI02), 2.666 ± 0.033 fm (1969BE21). See also (1959EH1A, 1959ME24).

Form factors for transitions to the ground state and to excited states of 16O have been reported by (1961LA09, 1963GO04, 1964BI08, 1967BI12, 1969SI10, 1969TO01, 1970BE03) as well as in some of the papers which follow.

Table 16.26 (in PDF or PS) lists the excited states observed from spectra of inelastically scattered electrons (1961IS06, 1962BI19, 1963IS02, 1965DE1C, 1965VA09, 1966VA02, 1967AR1A, 1967DR05, 1968DR01, 1968ST04, 1968ST31, 1969ST06, 1970GO03, 1970KI02, 1970ST06).

Discussions of this reaction are presented in (1959ME24, 1962BA1D, 1966GO1C, 1966KA1C, 1967IS1A). See also (1960IS04, 1964BA1R, 1964BI1D, 1968GO1J, 1969MC1D) and (1960DE1A, 1960IN1A, 1963BI05, 1963WI09, 1964GI1A, 1965DE1K, 1965IN1A, 1965LE1D, 1965SE1D, 1966BO1N, 1966GR1K, 1966LE1J, 1966RA1F, 1966SI1E, 1967CZ1B, 1967CZ1C, 1967EL1B, 1967HI1B, 1967RH1B, 1967WA1E, 1967WA1F, 1968FR1E, 1968HO1B, 1968KA1H, 1968MA1N, 1969CI1A, 1969DE14, 1969DO1D, 1969FU1F, 1969GE08, 1969KA05, 1969KU1C, 1969TU01, 1969UB01, 1969VI02, 1970BO2A, 1970CI1B, 1970DE1R, 1970FR1E, 1970GE12, 1970GO1U, 1970JA08, 1970KA20, 1970LI18, 1970LO1G, 1970MC1D, 1970MC1L, 1970ON1B, 1970SA1B). See also (1959AJ76).

Reaction (b) studied at Ee = 30 MeV shows resonances (assuming ground state transitions) at Ex = 17.27, 18.07, 18.99, 19.57, 20.65, 22.30, 23.10 and 24.35 MeV. The states corresponding to the three highest resonances have Γ = 620, 170 and 790 keV, respectively (1962DO1A). See also (1967AM1E) and (1966RA1C, 1967DE1P, 1968MA1M).

56. 16O(n, n')16O*

Angular distributions have been measured at several energies: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1962MA05, 1963BA46, 1966LI03, 1966MC01, 1967BE75, 1969ME15). Gamma rays have been observed corresponding to the ground state decay of 16O states at Ex = 6129.1 ± 1.2 keV [Eγ = 6127.8 ± 1.2 keV] (1966BE1A), 6906 ± 15, 7112 ± 10 and 8865 ± 3 keV (1969NY1A). See also (1970DI1C). Measured lifetimes are shown in Table 16.19 (in PDF or PS) (1969NY1A). See also (1961AS1B, 1963HO08, 1963MO04, 1963OP1A, 1964EN1B, 1964MO1D, 1964PE20, 1966KO1D, 1966MO1C, 1970DR11, 1970MA1J), (1960PE1A, 1962PA1A, 1963KO1C, 1967HO1H, 1967LA1K, 1967LE1G, 1968CA1A, 1969OW1B, 1969SC1L; theor.), 17O and (1959AJ76).

57. (a) 16O(p, p')16O*
(b) 16O(p, 2p)15N Qm = -12.126
(c) 16O(p, pd)14N Qm = -20.736
(d) 16O(p, pα)12C Qm = -7.161

Angular distributions of elastic and inelastic proton groups have been measured at many energies: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1959HU17, 1960KO09, 1961TA06, 1964DA02, 1964DA07, 1964KI06, 1964RI07, 1965HA17, 1967FA06, 1967FR10, 1967IG1B, 1967PA1L, 1967PA25, 1968AN13, 1968AN27, 1968AU1C, 1968CA30, 1969BA23, 1969SN03, 1969SU03, 1970AU1C, 1970HO07). Observed proton groups are displayed in Table 16.28 (in PDF or PS) (1955HO68, 1969SU03). See also (1965HA17).

See also (1968PA1J), (1960LA03, 1960MA43, 1960WA15, 1962FO03, 1962RO25, 1964BA04, 1964SC1F, 1966YA04, 1968GA1H) and (1959EG20, 1959EG21, 1959GL57, 1959HO95, 1959PU1A, 1960SA1C, 1960SA1E, 1961SA1B, 1963DU1B, 1963HO1D, 1964HO1C, 1966GI1A, 1967LE13, 1968BA1K, 1968CH35, 1968CZ1A, 1968GL1A, 1968LE1D, 1968RE03, 1969KO1H, 1969KU1D, 1969LE03, 1969OW1B, 1969RE10, 1969VA18, 1969WA11, 1970KU1C, 1970SA06, 1970SH14, 1970VA1A; theor.). See also (1959AJ76).

For polarization measurements see reaction 7 in 17F and see also (1960KA1E, 1961SA1B, 1963DU1B, 1963HO1D, 1965BA1M, 1965HA28; theor.).

For reaction (b), see the reviews by (1965RI1A, 1967RI1C) and 15N. See also (1966TY01, 1968PE1A) and (1965BE1E, 1966JA1A, 1967JA1E, 1968HE1J, 1969KO1J; theor.).

For reaction (c) see (1967SU1C, 1968FR1J) and (1963SH1A, 1964BA1P, 1968KO1P, 1968RO1F; theor.). For reaction (d) see (1961KO02, 1962FO03, 1962RO25, 1962VA1A, 1965ZH1A, 1967CH04, 1970GO12). For spallation studies, see reaction 7 in 17F.

58. 16O(d, d')16O*

Angular distribution studies have been carried out for Ed = 2.0 to 52 MeV: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1960TA08, 1962MA25, 1963CA17, 1963CA1E, 1963CA1F, 1963GA1D, 1963NE1C, 1964NE1D, 1964TE1C, 1966CO24, 1966DU08, 1966GA09, 1966NG01, 1967AL06, 1967FI07, 1967NE09, 1968DI06, 1968GA13, 1968HI14, 1970DA14). See also (1961LO01, 1963DO1B, 1965DI1C) and (1968ME1E, 1969HA1V, 1969IC02; theor.). For polarization studies, see (1969CO12, 1970CO1P) and 18F in (1972AJ02).

59. 16O(t, t)16O

Angular distributions are reported for Et = 6.4 to 12 MeV: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1964PU01, 1965GL04, 1966GL1B). See also (1968HO1C).

60. 16O(3He, 3He)16O

Angular distributions have been measured for E(3He) = 1.9 to 29 MeV: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1961SI09, 1962SE13, 1963AG1A, 1965AL05, 1965AR1E, 1965JI1A, 1965YO1B, 1967HA1F, 1969BR07, 1969NU02, 1969ZU02, 1970MC1F). See also (1966AG1B), (1968HO1C, 1969HO27, 1969RA1B; theor.) and 19Ne in (1972AJ02).

61. (a) 16O(α, α')16O*
(b) 16O(α, 2α)12C Qm = -7.161

Inelastic α-groups observed by (1964HA16, 1966HA19) are tabulated in Table 16.29 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured for Eα = 5 to 104 MeV: see Table 16.27 (in PDF or PS) (1959CO70, 1959YA01, 1960AG01, 1962JO14, 1963CR04, 1964BO1E, 1964BU1C, 1964HA16, 1964KO02, 1965BL03, 1965BU05, 1965KO07, 1965KO1A, 1965PR1E, 1965VA11, 1966HA19, 1967BR39, 1968CE1B, 1968GA1C, 1968HA1D, 1968RE1F, 1968TA1Q, 1969AG06, 1969FE10, 1969HA14, 1969JO18, 1970CO13, 1970FE07). See also (1968FA1A). Angular correlation measurements involving 16O*(6.13) [Jπ = 3-] are reported by (1965BL03).

See also (1959FU62, 1963CR01, 1963MI1C, 1963NO1C, 1967JA1G, 1967RE1B), (1959BL31, 1964HO1C, 1965FA1D, 1965JA1D, 1966CE1F, 1966MC20, 1968HI08, 1968RA1C, 1968SH1E, 1969PI02, 1971NO03; theor.) and 20Ne in (1972AJ02).

Reaction (b) proceeds via excited states of 16O: see (1962VA25, 1964DO1C, 1968PA12) and (1970PI1D). See also (1968BA1H; theor.).

62. (a) 16O(6Li, 6Li)16O
(b) 16O(7Li, 7Li)16O

The elastic scattering has been studied for E(6Li) and E(7Li) = 20 MeV by (1969BE90).

63. (a) 16O(9Be, 9Be)16O
(b) 16O(10B, 10B)16O
(c) 16O(11B, 11B)16O

For reaction (a), see (1969KR03). For reaction (b), see (1968OK06, 1969KR03). For reaction (c), see (1968OK06, 1969VO10, 1970SC1G).

64. 16O(12C, 12C)16O

The elastic scattering has been observed at E(16O) = 20 to 42 MeV (1969VO10), 26.0 to 32.5 MeV (1969KR03), 35 MeV (1967GO1A), 110.9 MeV (1962WI09) and 168 MeV (1964HI09). The excitation of 16O*(6.13, 6.92, 7.12) is also reported: see (1962WI09, 1963GO27, 1964HI09, 1964NE01). See also (1969BR1D), (1965GR09, 1968MA1J) and (1964KU1D, 1964MC1C, 1966BA2K, 1969KA1G, 1969RO1G; theor.).

65. 16O(14N, 14N)16O

See (1969JA15, 1970MA1A).

66. 16O(16O, 16O)16O

The angular distributions of elastically scattered 16O ions have been measured at E(16O) = 14 to 30 MeV (1961BR15), 25 to 63 MeV (1969MA40), and at 140.4 MeV (1962WI09). At the highest energy the angular distribution corresponding to the excitation of 16O to the first four excited states (unresolved) has also been measured (1962WI09). See also (1962RO15). Excitation curves are reported by (1961BR15, 1965CA02, 1967SI18, 1968PA1V, 1969MA40, 1970SP1E). Very striking structure is observed in the elastic scattering for E(16O) = 34 to 72 MeV: see (1969MA40).

See also (1968BR1D, 1969BR1D, 1969BR1G, 1969GO1L, 1969VO1E, 1970BR1G), and (1967BL1K, 1968BR1K, 1968EL1D, 1968MU1D, 1968SC1F, 1969CH11, 1969RI1B, 1969SC1M, 1970BL1E, 1970CH1V, 1970EC1A, 1970GR1J, 1970PR12, 1970SC1K). For astrophysical considerations, see (1969TR1E).

67. 17O(p, d)16O Qm = -1.918

At Ep = 31 MeV, angular distributions are reported for the deuterons corresponding to 16O*(0, 6.05 + 6.13, 7.12, 8.87, 10.34, 12.97, 13.26). States at Ex = 15.22 and 15.42 MeV were also observed. Spectroscopic factors were obtained from a DWBA analysis (1970ME01). The strength of the group to 16O*(10.34) is ≈ 20 times less than predicted by the shell-model wave functions of (1968ZU02) and (1970ME01).

68. 17O(d, t)16O Qm = 2.115

Not reported.

69. 17O(3He, α)16O Qm = 16.435

Angular distributions of ground state α-particles have been measured for E(3He) = 2.7 to 6.5 MeV (1965WA1D).

70. 18O(p, t)16O Qm = -3.707

Angular distributions of tritons have been measured at Ep = 17.6 MeV (1961LE1A, 1963LE03; t0), 18.2 MeV (1967LU05; t0, t1+2, t3, t4, t5) and at 43.7 MeV (1964CE05, 1966CE05). At the higher energy, angular distributions are reported for the tritons corresponding to 16O states at Ex = 0, 9.85, 22.9 and 24.7 MeV, with L = 0, 2, 0 and 2, respectively. The Ex = 22.9 and 24.7 MeV states are presumably the 0+; T = 2 and 2+; T = 2 analogs of 16O*(0, 1.75), respectively (1964CE05). See also (1965RE1A, 1968BL1G), (1969GA1P) and (1967DO1B, 1969JA1P; theor.).

71. 18O(α, 6He)16O Qm = -11.219

At Eα = 42 MeV, angular distributions of the 6He particles corresponding to the ground state of 16O and to the (unresolved) states at 6.1 and at 7.0 MeV have been measured (1970AR1H).

72. 18O(7Li, 9Li)16O Qm = -6.104

See (1969TO1D).

73. 18O(12C, 14C)16O Qm = 0.934

See (1968GO1Q).

74. 19F(p, α)16O Qm = 8.115
Q0 = 8.122 ± 0.009 (1967SP09).

Angular distributions of various α-particle groups have been obtained at many energies: see Table 16.30 (in PDF or PS). Observed excited states are displayed in Table 16.31 (in PDF or PS) (1956SQ1A, 1957YO04, 1965BE1J, 1967CH19, 1967DO1C). In addition to the very accurate γ-ray energies listed in Table 16.31 (in PDF or PS), (1970GA09) report Eγ = 2741.5 ± 0.5 keV for the (8.87 → 6.13) transition. The E0 transition (6.05 → 0; 0+ → 0+) has been investigated in some detail: E = 6051 ± 5 keV (1962NE02), 6052 ± 4 keV (1963LE06). The internal conversion to pair production ratio is (4.00 ± 0.46) × 10-5 (1963LE06). See also (1962NE02, 1963GO18). The ratio of double γ-emission to pair production, ΓE1E1E0(π) ≤ 1.1 × 10-4 (1964AL18). Gamma-ray branching ratios and widths for γ-emission have been obtained for many transitions: see Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS) (1960PI04, 1962GO07, 1962GO15, 1963GO31, 1965FU05, 1966LO06, 1967GI07, 1967LO08, 1967PI01, 1968EV03, 1968WI15). For lifetime measurements see Table 16.19 (in PDF or PS) (1954DE36, 1958KO63, 1965AL14, 1967PI01, 1970CO09, 1970GA09).

See also (1959FA1A, 1966MA60), (1959TR1A, 1960GO20, 1960NE15, 1960RI05, 1961BE1E, 1961GO10, 1961GO30, 1961KN02, 1962CO17, 1962FO03, 1962GO08, 1962GO10, 1963BE1J, 1963GO34, 1963ME17 (and Thesis, Univ. of Strasbourg), 1963SC33 (and Thesis, Univ. of Strasbourg), 1963SU12 (and Thesis, Univ. of Strasbourg), 1965BU1E, 1966EV1B, 1966SW01, 1970WI13), and (1961KR1A, 1962TE1B, 1963ED1A, 1965NE1D, 1965OK1A, 1965WA08, 1968HI08, 1969SM1C; theor.). See (1969BA71) for astrophysical considerations. See also (1959AJ76) and 20Ne in (1972AJ02).

75. 19F(d, nα)16O Qm = 5.890

See (1965PE01).

76. 19F(3He, 6Li)16O Qm = 4.094

Angular distributions of the 6Li ions corresponding to the transition to the ground state of 16O have been measured for E(3He) = 5 MeV (1968ME13) and at 40.7 MeV (1969OH1B, 1970DE1T).

77. 19F(α, 7Li)16O Qm = -9.232

The angular distribution of the 7Li ions corresponding to 16O(0) has been measured at Eα = 42 MeV (1968MI05).

78. (a) 20Ne(p, pα)16O Qm = -4.730
(b) 20Ne(α, 2α)16O Qm = -4.730

For reaction (a) see (1967CH04, 1969EP1C). For reaction (b) see (1968YA1C).

79. 20Ne(d, 6Li)16O Qm = -3.257

At Ed = 50 MeV, strong transitions are reported to 16O*(0, 6.05 + 6.13, 6.92, 9.85). The 4+ state at Ex = 10.34 MeV is very weakly excited (1970DU1E, 1970MC1G).

80. 20Ne(3He, 7Be)16O Qm = -3.143

At E(3He) = 30 MeV, angular distributions of 7Be ions [7Be(0) and (1)] associated with the transitions to 16O*(0, 6.05 + 6.13) (1970DE12) are reported. See also (1970DU1E).

81. 28Si(α, 16O)16O Qm = -9.592

See (1967VA18).