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15O (1991AJ01)

(See Energy Level Diagrams for 15O)

GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01), Table 2 preview 2 [Electromagnetic Transitions in A = 13-15] (in PDF or PS), Table 15.16 preview 15.16 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) and Table 15.17 preview 15.17 [Radiative decays in 15O] (in PDF or PS).

Nuclear models:(1987ST05).

Special states:(1985SH24, 1986LI1B, 1987ST05, 1988AN1E, 1989WU1C).

Electromagnetic transitions:(1984VA06, 1987HO1L, 1987ST05).

Astrophysical questions:(1985TA1A, 1987RA1D, 1989JI1A, 1989ST14, 1990RA1O).

Complex reactions involving 15O:(1985FI08, 1985HU1C, 1985PO11, 1985SI19, 1986GR1A, 1986ME06, 1986PO06, 1986TO10, 1986UT01, 1987BA38, 1987BE1I, 1987BU07, 1987NA01, 1987RI03, 1987ST01, 1988BE02, 1988BE56, 1988MI28, 1989BA92, 1989CA25, 1989DR03, 1989KI13, 1989PO07, 1989SA10, 1989TA1O, 1989YO02).

Applied work:(1985BO1P, 1985HA40, 1987HI1B, 1988HI1F, 1988VO1D, 1989AR1J, 1989WO1B).

Pion and other mesons capture and reactions (See also reactions 8, 16, 17 and 21.): (1986LI1B, 1987LE1B, 1988CH49, 1988MI1K, 1989LE1L, 1990OD1A).

Hypernuclei:(1984ZH1B, 1986DA1G, 1989BA93, 1989KO1H, 1989TA17).

Other topics:(1985AN28, 1985SH24, 1986AN07, 1986WI03, 1987CH02, 1989WU1C, 1990MU10).

Ground-state properties of 15O:(1985AN28, 1985AR11, 1986MC13, 1986WI03, 1986WUZX, 1987FU06, 1987SA15, 1988AR1B, 1988CH1T, 1988FU04, 1988NI05, 1988SH07, 1988VA03, 1988WA08, 1989CH24, 1989FU05, 1989NE02, 1989SA10).

μ = 0.7189 (8) nm (1978LEZA). See also (1989RA17).

15O*(5.24): μ = +(0.65 ± 0.07) nm: see (1989RA17).

1. 15O(β+)15N Qm = 2.7539

The half-life of 15O is 122.24 ± 0.16 s: see (1981AJ01); log f0t = 3.637. The K/β+ ratio is (10.7 ± 0.6) × 10-4: see (1976AJ04). The β-anisotropy has been measured by (1988SE11, 1989DE07). See also (1986AJ01), (1990ST08), (1985BA1N, 1985BA1M, 1986GR04, 1987BA89, 1987FR1C, 1987RI1E, 1987WE1C, 1988BA86, 1988BA1Y, 1989BA2P, 1989DA1H; astrophysics) and (1988TA09, 1988TO1C, 1989WO1E; theor.).

2. (a) 11B(7Li, 3n)15O Qm = -3.494
(b) 11B(9Be, t2n)15O Qm = -13.932

For reaction (a) see (1986BE54); for reaction (b) see (1986BE35). For other heavy-ion reactions see (1986AJ01).

3. (a) 12C(3He, γ)15O Qm = 12.0759
(b) 12C(3He, n)14O Qm = -1.1466 Eb = 12.0759
(c) 12C(3He, p)14N Qm = 4.7789
(d) 12C(3He, d)13N Qm = -3.5500
(e) 12C(3He, t)12N Qm = -17.357
(f) 12C(3He, 3He)12C
(g) 12C(3He, α)11C Qm = 1.8560

Excitation functions and polarization measurements for these reactions have been measured over a wide range of energies: see Table 15.20 preview 15.20 in (1970AJ04 (in PDF or PS), Table 15.20 preview 1976AJ04 (in PDF or PS), Table 15.20 preview 1981AJ01 (in PDF or PS)) and the text below. Observed resonances are displayed in Table 15.18 preview 15.18 (in PDF or PS) here.

The 90° yield and the angular distributions of γ0, measured from E(3He) = 5.24 to 13.95 MeV show five resonances attributed to E1 transitions from Jπ = 1/2+ or 3/2+, T = 1/2 states in the GDR characterized by a considerable 3p4h admixture ((1978DE33) [also for ωγ], (1984DE09)). Yields of γ1+2 at 90° have also been reported at E(3He) = 5.3 to 16.7 MeV: the cross section is some eight times greater than that for (3He, γ0) and is similar to that for the 14N(p, γ0)15O reaction over the same excitation range. Three resonances are reported [see Table 15.18 preview 15.18 (in PDF or PS) (1989KI09)]: it is suggested that they are due to cluster states with a large 3p4h component. See also (1988BLZY; prelim.; E(3He) = 12.0 to 24.6 MeV; γ to many states of 15O).

The yield of n0 (reaction (b)) shows resonances for E(3He) < 10 MeV and little structure above, to 30.6 MeV: see (1981AJ01) [n1 and n2+3+4 yields are also reported].

The yield of protons (reaction (c)) shows some clear resonances below E(3He) = 4.5 MeV and some uncorrelated structures at higher energies (to E(3He) = 12 MeV) with the possible exception of states at Eres = 7.8, 9.2 - 9.6 and (10.5) MeV. For E(3He) = 16 to 30.6 MeV no appreciable structure is observed in the p0, p1 and p2 yields: see (1976AJ04). At E(3pol. He) = 33 MeV Ay has been measured for 14N*(0, 2.31, 3.95): see (1986AJ01). For polarization effects in the (3He, 2p) reaction at E(3pol. He) = 33 MeV see (1986KA44). For reactions (d) and (e) see (1976AJ04, 1981AJ01, 1986AJ01).

The elastic scattering (reaction (f)) shows some resonant structure near 3, 5 and 6 MeV and some largely uncorrelated structures in the range E(3He) = 16.5 to 24 MeV. There is some suggestion, however, of two resonances at E(3He) = 17 and 20 MeV: see (1976AJ04). Resonance-like behavior is also reported at E(3pol. He) = 29 MeV. Polarization measurements are reported for E(3pol. He) = 20.5 to 32.6 MeV: see (1981AJ01). See also (1986AJ01). The yield of α-particles displays resonance structure below 8 MeV, and broad fluctuations for E(3He) = 12 to 18.6 MeV: see (1976AJ04). Polarization measurements are reported for E(3pol. He) = 33.3 MeV for the α0 and α1 groups: see (1981AJ01). For Ay measurements of the (3He, 7Be) and (3He, 6Li) reactions see (1989SI02, 1986CL1B). For π± production see (1986MI25). For a search for subthreshold K+ production see (1985IA01). For work at very high energies see (1985AB1B, 1985AD1C). See also (1986AJ01), (1984NA1F), (1990TO10; applied) and (1986EV01, 1986SI02; theor.).

4. 12C(α, n)15O Qm = -8.5019

Angular distributions of the n0 group have been measured for Eα = 18.4 to 23.1 MeV: see (1976AJ04). At Eα = 41 MeV angular distributions are reported to 15O*(5.24, 6.86 + 7.28, 9.63[u], 10.48[u], 11.72[u], 12.85[u], 15.05[u]). 15O*(8.92, 11.1, 12.3, 13.45, 13.72, 14.27, 15.65) are also populated ((1981OV01) [uncertainties in Ex are not shown; unresolved states are a problem]). At Eα = 47.4 MeV groups are populated at θ = 0° corresponding to 15Og.s. and to unresolved states at 5.2, 7.3, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.3 MeV (1988LU02). See also (1988CA26; astrophys.).

5. 12C(6Li, t)15O Qm = -3.7196

States observed in this reaction are displayed in Table 15.19 preview 15.19 (in PDF or PS) (1975BI06: E(6Li) = 59.8 MeV). Comparisons of angular distributions of the triton groups in this reaction and of the 3He groups to analog states in 15N have been made: analog correspondence is established for (10.48 - 10.70), (12.84 - 13.15 (u)) and (15.05 - 15.49 (u)) [Ex in 15O, Ex in 15N; u = unresolved] (1975BI06). See also (1976AJ04) for the earlier work.

6. 12C(12C, 9Be)15O Qm = -14.2031

At E(12C) = 187 MeV, θlab = 8°, the spectrum is dominated by 15O*(12.84, 15.05) [assumed Jπ = 1/2-, 13/2+, respectively]. 15O*(7.28) [Jπ = 7/2+] is populated but 15O*(0, 6.79) are not observed. The situation is similar at E(12C) = 114 MeV but at E(12C) = 72 MeV (θlab = 11°) 15O*(0, 5.2, 7.28) are populated with comparable intensities: see (1976AJ04).

At E(12C) = 480 MeV the three most strongly excited states in the forward direction are 15O*(10.46, 12.83[u], 15.05[u]) [Jπ = 9/2+, 11/2-, 13/2+] and forward angle σ(θ) have been measured. 15O*(0, 5.24, 7.3, 8.9[u], 16.7[u], 18.2[u], 21.1[u], 22.1[u]) are also populated (1988KR11).

7. 13C(3He, n)15O Qm = 7.1296

Observed groups are displayed in Table 15.22 preview 15.22 (in PDF or PS) of (1981AJ01).

8. 14C(p, π-)15O Qm = -132.115

At Epol. p = 183 MeV differential cross sections and Ay are reported for the transitions to 15O*(0, 7.3), the two states strongly populated in the reaction (1982JA05, 1982VI05). See also (1986JA1H) and (1986KU1J, 1990KU1H; theor.).

9. 14N(p, γ)15O Qm = 7.2971

Observed resonances in the yield of γ-rays are listed in Table 15.20 preview 15.20 (in PDF or PS). Branching ratios are displayed in Table 15.17 preview 15.17 (in PDF or PS). Measurements of Eγ lead to Ex = 5183 ± 1, 5240.9 ± 0.4, 6175 ± 2, 6794 ± 2, 6858 ± 2, 8284.1 ± 0.8, 8922 ± 2 and 8978 ± 2 keV: see (1981AJ01)). For τm see (1981AJ01).

(1987SC1H) have studied absolute cross sections, γ-ray angular distributions and excitation functions for Ep = 0.2 to 3.6 MeV: S(0) is determined to be 3.20 ± 0.54 keV · b. C2S are derived for the first eight states of 15O (1987SC1H).

The 90° γ0 yield has been measured for Ep = 2.2 to 19 MeV: resonances are observed over most of the range. The (γ1 + γ2) yield is relatively weak. For Ep = 18 to 28 MeV the excitation function for γ0 decreases smoothly with energy: there is no evidence for structures [see (1981AJ01)]. See also (1985CA41, 1987KR04, 1987WE1C, 1988CA1J, 1988CA26, 1989BA2P, 1989TH1C, 1990MA1P; astrophysics) and (1990HA46; theor.).

10. 14N(p, n)14O Qm = -5.9255 Eb = 7.2971

The excitation function has been measured for Ep = 6.3 to 12 MeV: see (1970AJ04). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 15.20 preview 15.20 (in PDF or PS). The cross section [obtained by measuring the 2.31 MeV γ-rays from the 14O (β+) decay] is reported at 12 energies in the range Ep = 7 to 22 MeV (1981DY03). Production cross sections for the 2.31 MeV γ-rays have been measured at Ep = 8.9, 20, 30, 33 and 40 MeV by (1988LE08). The ratio of the cross section to 14Og.s. to that for the analog state 14N*(2.31) [from the (p, p') reaction] has been determined at Ep = 35 MeV (1984TA02). Forward-angle differential cross sections (n0) are reported by (1979MO16) at Ep = 144 MeV. See also (1985CA41; astrophys.) and 14O.

11. 14N(p, p)14N Eb = 7.2971

The yields of elastic and inelastic protons, and of 2.31 MeV γ-rays, have been studied at many energies: see (1959AJ76, 1970AJ04, 1976AJ04). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 15.20 preview 15.20 (in PDF or PS). At higher energies excitation functions have been measured for the p0, p1 and p2 groups for Ep = 17 to 26.5 MeV: there is no evidence for resonant behavior but the p1 yield shows a large increase between Ep = 20 and 23 MeV. Total cross sections for the p0 → p9 groups have been measured at Ep = 8.6, 10.6, 12.6 and 14.6 MeV [see (1981AJ01)]. Total reaction cross sections have also been measured in the range Ep = 22.9 to 49.0 MeV by (1985CA36). (1988LE08) report 2.31-MeV γ-ray production cross sections at Ep = 8.9, 20, 30, 33 and 40 MeV. For measurements at E(14N) = 516 MeV/A see (1990WE14).

Polarization measurements have been carried out at Ep = 3.0 to 159.4 MeV [see (1970AJ04, 1976AJ04, 1986AJ01)] and at Epol. p = 35 MeV (1990IE01; p1) and 0.8 GeV (1985BL22; Ay; elastic). See also 14N, (1986BA2U), (1986BA88, 1987HU01) and (1989AM01; theor.).

12. 14N(p, 3He)12C Qm = -4.7789 Eb = 7.2971

Excitation functions for the ground-state group have been measured at Ep = 7 to 11 MeV: some resonant structure is indicated [see Table 15.20 preview 15.20 (in PDF or PS)]. See also (1976AJ04).

13. 14N(p, α)11C Qm = -2.9228 Eb = 7.2971

Excitation functions and total cross-section measurements have been measured for the α0 group for Ep = 3.8 to 45 MeV: see (1976AJ04). Fairly sharp structures persist until Ep = 15 MeV: see Table 15.20 preview 15.20 (in PDF or PS) here and footnote e in Table 15.23 preview 15.23 (in PDF or PS) of (1981AJ01). See also (1986AI04; applied) and (1985CA41; astrophys.).

14. 14N(d, n)15O Qm = 5.0725

Angular distributions have been studied at many energies in the range Ed = 0.9 to 11.8 MeV: see Table 15.27 preview 15.27 (in PDF or PS) and Table 15.28 preview 15.28 (in PDF or PS) in (1970AJ04) and Table 15.26 preview 15.26 (in PDF or PS) in (1976AJ04). For τm measurements see (1970AJ04). See also Table 15.21 preview 15.21 (in PDF or PS) here, 16O in (1986AJ04), (1987HI1B; applied) and (1984BL21; theor.).

15. 14N(3He, d)15O Qm = 1.8035

See Table 15.28 preview 15.28 (in PDF or PS) in (1970AJ04). See also Table 15.21 preview 15.21 (in PDF or PS) here.

16. 15N(γ, π-)15O Qm = -142.322

At Eγ = 170 MeV four-point angular distributions of the π- to 15Og.s. have been measured by (1988LI23) and (1989KO28): the two studies are not in good agreement. See also (1990ER03; theor.).

17. 15N(π+, π0)15O Qm = 1.850

Angular distributions of the π0 to 15Og.s. have been studied at Eπ+ = 32.4 and 55.5 MeV (1985IR02), at 48 MeV (1984CO04, 1986LE01) and at 165 MeV (1982DO10). Forward-angle differential cross sections of the π0 to 15Og.s. have also been measured at Eπ+ = 20 MeV (1987IR01) and at 40.7 and 63.6 MeV (1985IR02). See also (1989LE1L).

18. 15N(p, n)15O Qm = -3.5363

Angular distributions have been measured for Ep = 3.95 to 18.5 MeV [see (1981AJ01, 1986AJ01)], at 35 MeV (1987OR01; 15O*(7.56) [Jπ = 1/2+]), at 135 MeV (1985WA24; 15O*(0, 6.2)) and at 200 and 494 MeV (1988CIZZ; prelim.; also Ay). Forward-angle differential cross sections at Ep = 200, 300 and 400 MeV to 15O*(0, 6.2) are reported by (1987ALZW; prelim.). The ratio of the population of 15Og.s. to that of 15O*(6.2) has been determined at Ep = 800 MeV (1986KI12). 15O*(6.2) contains only about 1/3 of the expected GT strength (1985GO02). [I am indebted to Prof. C.D. Goodman for his comments.] For a discussion of GT strengths, see (1987TA13). 15O*(5.2[u], 6.8[u], 7.28) have also been populated (1987OR01). For the earlier work see (1986AJ01). See also 16O in (1986AJ04), (1985GO1Q, 1986VO1G, 1987BE25, 1988RO17, 1988WA1Q), (1986MA1P, 1987HI1B, 1988HI1F; applied) and (1989RA15; theor.).

19. 15N(3He, t)15O Qm = -2.7725

Angular distributions for the t0, t1+2, t3, t4+5, t6 and t7 groups have been studied for E(3He) = 16.5 to 44.6 MeV: see (1976AJ04).

20. 16O(γ, n)15O Qm = -15.6638

The spectrum of photoneutrons has been investigated at many energies. Measurements over the giant dipole resonance region show the predominant strength is to the Jπ = 1/2- and 3/2- states Ex = 0 and 6.18 MeV, consistent with the basic validity of the single-particle, single-hole theory of photoexcitation in 16O. However, the positive-parity states at Ex = 5.18, 5.24, 6.86 MeV are also populated suggesting some more complicated excitations in 16O: (1970AJ04, 1976AJ04). Differential cross sections for the n0 group have been measured from threshold to Eγ = 28 MeV [see (1976AJ04)], at Eγ = 60 to 160 MeV (also 15O*(6.18); no appreciable strength in the 5.2 MeV doublet) [see (1986AJ01)] and at 150, 200 and 250 MeV (1989BE14). See also 16O in (1986AJ04) and (1987RY03, 1988CA10, 1988DUZX, 1988RY03, 1990BRZY, 1990FL1A; theor.).

21. (a) 16O(π+, p)15O Qm = 124.687
(b) 16O(π+, π+n)15O Qm = -15.6638
(c) 16O(π+, π0p)15O Qm = -10.277

For reaction (a) see (1982DO01). At Eπ+ = 2.0 GeV/c differential cross sections have been determined for the transition to 15N*(6.2) (1983KI01) in reaction (b). For reaction (c), see (1986GI1A).

22. 16O(p, pn)15O Qm = -15.6638

At Ep = 505 MeV the summed spectra show two peaks corresponding to the p1/2 and p3/2 knockouts [15O*(0, 6.18)] (binding energies of 15.64 and 21.82 MeV). Differential cross sections are also reported (1986MC10) [see also reaction 59 in 15N]. For work at 1 GeV, see (1985BE30). See also (1983WA1C) and (1987HI1B; applied).

23. 16O(p, d)15O Qm = -13.4392

Angular distributions have been reported at many energies for Ep = 18.5 to 155.6 MeV [see Table 15.30 preview 15.30 in (1970AJ04) (in PDF or PS), (1976AJ04), (1986AJ01)]: at those energies 15O*(0, 6.18) are preferentially populated. At Ep = 200 MeV angular distributions have been studied for 15O*(0, 6.18) (1989AB01) [also Ay and C2S]. At Ep = 800 MeV 15O*(0, 5.2[u], 6.18, 7.4[u], 9.0[u], 10.42 ± 0.15, 10.87 ± 0.15, 12.21 ± 0.15, 13.59 ± 0.15, 19.0 ± 0.2, 21.1 ± 0.2) [the last two states have Γ ≥ 0.8 MeV] have been populated (1984SM04).

For γ-ray production [15O*(5.24)] see (1988LE08). See also 17F in (1986AJ04), (1989WA16) and (1987LA11, 1988LE08, 1989GU28; astrophysics).

24. 16O(d, t)15O Qm = -9.4065

Angular distributions have been reported at a number of energies in the range Ed = 20 to 52 MeV [see (1981AJ01) and reaction 60 in 15N here] and at Epol. d = 89 MeV (1990SA27; 15O*(0, 6.18)). See also 18F in (1983AJ01).

25. 16O(3He, α)15O Qm = 4.9140

The p1/2 and p3/2 hole states 15O*(0, 6.18) are strongly populated. Information on these and other states are displayed in Table 15.25 preview 15.25 (in PDF or PS) of (1981AJ01). Angular distributions have been measured at energies up to E(3He) = 217 MeV: see (1981AJ01). Branching ratios and multipole mixing ratios are displayed in Table 15.17 preview 15.17 (in PDF or PS). (1978BE73) report τm of 15O*(5.24) = 3.25 ± 0.30 ps, |g| = 0.260 ± 0.028. (1983BI10) determine g = +0.17 ± 0.07. See also (1986AJ01), 19Ne in (1983AJ01) and (1990AB14; applied).

26. 16O(6Li, 7Li)15O Qm = -8.414

See (1986GL1E; prelim.).

27. 17O(p, t)15O Qm = -11.3254

At Ep = 39.8 MeV angular distributions of t0 and t3 groups have been compared to those of the 3He groups to the analog states in 15N. At Ep = 45 MeV a state, assumed to be the Jπ = 5/2+, T = 3/2 analog of 15C*(0.74), is observed at Ex = 12.255 ± 0.013 MeV, Γc.m. = 135 ± 15 keV. The state decays by proton emission to the T = 1, 0+ state 14N*(2.31) [the population of some T = 1/2 states is also reported]: see (1981AJ01).

Epol. p = 89.7 MeV angular distributions and Ay measurements have been reported to 15O*(0, 5.24[u], 6.18, 6.86, 7.28) (1985VO12).

28. 19F(3He, 7Li)15O Qm = -4.3185

See (1976AJ04). See also (1986HA1E; theor.).